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Revision9dd4673e32d9fcaf36a556cf8878c53cf54352fa (tree)
Time2021-12-31 10:27:37
AuthorBob Friesenhahn <bfriesen@Grap...>
CommiterBob Friesenhahn

Log Message

Something wrong with documentation generation. Restore partially ok.

Change Summary

Incremental Difference

diff -r 216c7dabe522 -r 9dd4673e32d9 utilities/gm.1
--- a/utilities/gm.1 Thu Dec 30 18:56:48 2021 -0600
+++ b/utilities/gm.1 Thu Dec 30 19:27:37 2021 -0600
@@ -1,19 +1,5118 @@
11 .TH gm 1 "2021/12/30" "GraphicsMagick"
2+.TP
3+.in 15
4+.in 15
5+.in 20
6+.SH NAME
7+\'
8+gm - command-line utility to create, edit, compare, convert, or display images
9+\'
10+.SH SYNOPSIS
11+\'
12+\fBgm animate\fP \fB[\fP \fIoptions ...\fP \fB]\fP \fIfile\fP \fB[ [\fP
13+\fIoptions ...\fP \fB]\fP \fIfile ...\fP \fB]\fP
14+\'
15+\fBgm batch\fP \fB[\fP \fIoptions ...\fP \fB]\fP \fB[\fP \fIscript\fP \fB]\fP
16+\'
17+\fBgm benchmark\fP \fB[\fP \fIoptions ...\fP \fB]\fP subcommand
18+\'
19+\fBgm compare\fP \fB[\fP \fIoptions\fP \fB... ]\fP \fIreference-image\fP
20+\fB[\fP \fIoptions\fP \fB... ]\fP \fIcompare-image\fP
21+\fB[\fP \fIoptions\fP \fB... ]\fP
22+\'
23+\fBgm composite\fP \fB[\fP \fIoptions ...\fP \fB]\fP \fIchange-image base-image\fP
24+\fB[\fP \fImask-image\fP \fB]\fP \fIoutput-image\fP
25+\'
26+\fBgm conjure\fP \fB[\fP \fIoptions\fP \fB]\fP \fIscript.msl\fP
27+\fB[ [\fP \fIoptions\fP \fB]\fP \fIscript.msl\fP \fB]\fP
28+\'
29+\fBgm convert\fP \fB[ [\fP \fIoptions ...\fP \fB] [\fP \fIinput-file ...\fP
30+\fB] [\fP \fIoptions ...\fP \fB] ]\fP \fIoutput-file\fP
31+\'
32+\fBgm display\fP \fB[\fP \fIoptions ...\fP \fB]\fP \fIfile ...\fP
33+\fB[ [\fP\fIoptions ...\fP \fB]\fP\fIfile ...\fP \fB]\fP
34+\'
35+\fBgm identify\fP \fIfile\fP \fB[\fP \fIfile ...\fP \fB]\fP
36+\'
37+\fBgm import\fP \fB[\fP \fIoptions ...\fP \fB]\fP \fIfile\fP
38+\'
39+\fBgm mogrify\fP \fB[\fP \fIoptions ...\fP \fB]\fP \fIfile ...\fP
40+\'
41+\fBgm montage\fP \fB[\fP \fIoptions ...\fP \fB]\fP \fIfile\fP \fB[ [\fP
42+\fIoptions ...\fP \fB]\fP \fIfile ...\fP \fB]\fP \fIoutput-file\fP
43+\'
44+\fBgm time\fP subcommand
45+\'
46+\fBgm version\fP
47+.SH DESCRIPTION
48+\'
49+GraphicsMagick's \fBgm\fP provides a suite of utilities for creating,
50+comparing, converting, editing, and displaying images. All of the
51+utilities are provided as sub-commands of a single \fBgm\fP
52+executable. The \fBgm\fP executable returns the exit code 0 to
53+indicate success, or 1 to indicate failure:
54+\'
55+\fBanimate\fP
56+displays an animation (e.g. a GIF file) on any workstation display
57+running an \fIX\fP server.
58+\'
59+\fBbatch\fP
60+executes an arbitary number of the utility commands
61+(e.g. \fBconvert\fP) in the form of a simple linear batch script in
62+order to improve execution efficiency, and/or to allow use as a
63+subordinate co-process under the control of an arbitrary script or
64+program.
65+\'
66+\fBbenchmark\fP
67+executes one of the other utility commands (e.g. \fBconvert\fP) for a
68+specified number of iterations, or execution time, and reports
69+execution time and other profiling information such as CPU
70+utilization. \fBBenchmark\fP provides various operating modes
71+including executing the command with a varying number of threads, and
72+alternate reporting formats such as comma-separated value (CSV).
73+\'
74+\fBcompare\fP
75+compares two images and reports difference statistics according to
76+specified metrics and/or outputs an image with a visual representation
77+of the differences. It may also be used to test if images are similar
78+within a particular range and specified metric, returning a truth
79+value to the executing environment.
80+\'
81+\fBcomposite\fP
82+composites images (blends or merges images together) to create new images.
83+\'
84+\fBconjure\fP
85+interprets and executes scripts in
86+the Magick Scripting Language (MSL).
87+\'
88+\fBconvert\fP
89+converts an input file using one image format to an output file with
90+the same or differing image format while applying an arbitrary number
91+of image transformations.
92+\'
93+\fBdisplay\fP
94+is a machine architecture independent image processing and display
95+facility. It can display an image on any workstation display running
96+an \fIX\fP server.
97+\'
98+\fBidentify\fP
99+describes the format and characteristics of one or more image
100+files. It will also report if an image is incomplete or corrupt.
101+\'
102+\fBimport\fP
103+reads an image from any visible window on an \fIX\fP server and
104+outputs it as an image file. You can capture a single window, the
105+entire screen, or any rectangular portion of the screen.
106+\'
107+\fBmogrify\fP
108+transforms an image or a sequence of images. These transforms include
109+\fBimage scaling\fP, \fBimage rotation\fP, \fBcolor reduction\fP,
110+and others. The transmogrified image \fBoverwrites\fP the original
111+image.
112+\'
113+\fBmontage\fP
114+creates a composite by combining several separate images. The images
115+are tiled on the composite image with the name of the image optionally
116+appearing just below the individual tile.
117+\'
118+\fBtime\fP
119+executes a subcommand and reports the user, system, and total
120+execution time consumed.
121+\'
122+\fBversion\fP
123+reports the GraphicsMagick release version, maximum sample-depth,
124+copyright notice, supported features, and the options used while
125+building the software.
126+\'
127+The \fBGraphicsMagick\fP utilities recognize the following image formats:
128+\'
129+\'
130+\fBName\fP \fBMode\fP \fBDescription\fP
131+ o 3FR r-- Hasselblad Photo RAW
132+ o 8BIM rw- Photoshop resource format
133+ o 8BIMTEXT rw- Photoshop resource text format
134+ o 8BIMWTEXT rw- Photoshop resource wide text format
135+ o APP1 rw- Raw application information
136+ o APP1JPEG rw- Raw JPEG binary data
137+ o ART r-- PF1: 1st Publisher
138+ o ARW r-- Sony Alpha DSLR RAW
139+ o AVS rw+ AVS X image
140+ o BIE rw- Joint Bi-level Image experts Group
141+ interchange format
142+ o BMP rw+ Microsoft Windows bitmap image
143+ o BMP2 -w- Microsoft Windows bitmap image v2
144+ o BMP3 -w- Microsoft Windows bitmap image v3
145+ o CACHE --- Magick Persistent Cache image format
146+ o CALS rw- Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle
147+ Support Type 1 image
148+ o CAPTION r-- Caption (requires separate size info)
149+ o CIN rw- Kodak Cineon Format
150+ o CMYK rw- Raw cyan, magenta, yellow, and black
151+ samples (8 or 16 bits, depending on
152+ the image depth)
153+ o CMYKA rw- Raw cyan, magenta, yellow, black, and
154+ matte samples (8 or 16 bits, depending
155+ on the image depth)
156+ o CR2 r-- Canon Photo RAW
157+ o CRW r-- Canon Photo RAW
158+ o CUR r-- Microsoft Cursor Icon
159+ o CUT r-- DR Halo
160+ o DCM r-- Digital Imaging and Communications in
161+ Medicine image
162+ o DCR r-- Kodak Photo RAW
163+ o DCX rw+ ZSoft IBM PC multi-page Paintbrush
164+ o DNG r-- Adobe Digital Negative
165+ o DPS r-- Display PostScript Interpreter
166+ o DPX rw- Digital Moving Picture Exchange
167+ o EPDF rw- Encapsulated Portable Document Format
168+ o EPI rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
169+ Interchange format
170+ o EPS rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
171+ o EPS2 -w- Adobe Level II Encapsulated PostScript
172+ o EPS3 -w- Adobe Level III Encapsulated PostScript
173+ o EPSF rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
174+ o EPSI rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
175+ Interchange format
176+ o EPT rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript with MS-DOS
177+ TIFF preview
178+ o EPT2 rw- Adobe Level II Encapsulated PostScript
179+ with MS-DOS TIFF preview
180+ o EPT3 rw- Adobe Level III Encapsulated PostScript
181+ with MS-DOS TIFF preview
182+ o EXIF rw- Exif digital camera binary data
183+ o FAX rw+ Group 3 FAX (Not TIFF Group3 FAX!)
184+ o FITS rw- Flexible Image Transport System
185+ o FRACTAL r-- Plasma fractal image
186+ o FPX rw- FlashPix Format
187+ o GIF rw+ CompuServe graphics interchange format
188+ o GIF87 rw- CompuServe graphics interchange format
189+ (version 87a)
190+ o GRADIENT r-- Gradual passing from one shade to
191+ another
192+ o GRAY rw+ Raw gray samples (8/16/32 bits,
193+ depending on the image depth)
194+ o HISTOGRAM -w- Histogram of the image
195+ o HRZ r-- HRZ: Slow scan TV
196+ o HTML -w- Hypertext Markup Language and a
197+ client-side image map
198+ o ICB rw+ Truevision Targa image
199+ o ICC rw- ICC Color Profile
200+ o ICM rw- ICC Color Profile
201+ o ICO r-- Microsoft icon
202+ o ICON r-- Microsoft icon
203+ o IDENTITY r-- Hald CLUT identity image
204+ o IMAGE r-- GraphicsMagick Embedded Image
205+ o INFO -w+ Image descriptive information and
206+ statistics
207+ o IPTC rw- IPTC Newsphoto
208+ o IPTCTEXT rw- IPTC Newsphoto text format
209+ o IPTCWTEXT rw- IPTC Newsphoto wide text format
210+ o JBG rw+ Joint Bi-level Image experts Group
211+ interchange format
212+ o JBIG rw+ Joint Bi-level Image experts Group
213+ interchange format
214+ o JNG rw- JPEG Network Graphics
215+ o JP2 rw- JPEG-2000 JP2 File Format Syntax
216+ o JPC rw- JPEG-2000 Code Stream Syntax
217+ o JPEG rw- Joint Photographic Experts Group
218+ JFIF format
219+ o JPG rw- Joint Photographic Experts Group
220+ JFIF format
221+ o K25 r-- Kodak Photo RAW
222+ o KDC r-- Kodak Photo RAW
223+ o LABEL r-- Text image format
224+ o M2V rw+ MPEG-2 Video Stream
225+ o MAP rw- Colormap intensities and indices
226+ o MAT r-- MATLAB image format
227+ o MATTE -w+ MATTE format
228+ o MIFF rw+ Magick Image File Format
229+ o MNG rw+ Multiple-image Network Graphics
230+ o MONO rw- Bi-level bitmap in least-significant-
231+ -byte-first order
232+ o MPC rw+ Magick Persistent Cache image format
233+ o MPEG rw+ MPEG-1 Video Stream
234+ o MPG rw+ MPEG-1 Video Stream
235+ o MRW r-- Minolta Photo Raw
236+ o MSL r-- Magick Scripting Language
237+ o MTV rw+ MTV Raytracing image format
238+ o MVG rw- Magick Vector Graphics
239+ o NEF r-- Nikon Electronic Format
240+ o NULL r-- Constant image of uniform color
241+ o OTB rw- On-the-air bitmap
242+ o P7 rw+ Xv thumbnail format
243+ o PAL rw- 16bit/pixel interleaved YUV
244+ o PALM rw- Palm Pixmap
245+ o PBM rw+ Portable bitmap format (black and white)
246+ o PCD rw- Photo CD
247+ o PCDS rw- Photo CD
248+ o PCL -w- Page Control Language
249+ o PCT rw- Apple Macintosh QuickDraw/PICT
250+ o PCX rw- ZSoft IBM PC Paintbrush
251+ o PDB rw+ Palm Database ImageViewer Format
252+ o PDF rw+ Portable Document Format
253+ o PEF r-- Pentax Electronic File
254+ o PFA r-- TrueType font
255+ o PFB r-- TrueType font
256+ o PGM rw+ Portable graymap format (gray scale)
257+ o PGX r-- JPEG-2000 VM Format
258+ o PICON rw- Personal Icon
259+ o PICT rw- Apple Macintosh QuickDraw/PICT
260+ o PIX r-- Alias/Wavefront RLE image format
261+ o PLASMA r-- Plasma fractal image
262+ o PNG rw- Portable Network Graphics
263+ o PNG24 rw- Portable Network Graphics, 24 bit RGB
264+ opaque only
265+ o PNG32 rw- Portable Network Graphics, 32 bit RGBA
266+ semitransparency OK
267+ o PNG8 rw- Portable Network Graphics, 8-bit
268+ indexed, binary transparency only
269+ o PNM rw+ Portable anymap
270+ o PPM rw+ Portable pixmap format (color)
271+ o PREVIEW -w- Show a preview an image enhancement,
272+ effect, or f/x
273+ o PS rw+ Adobe PostScript
274+ o PS2 -w+ Adobe Level II PostScript
275+ o PS3 -w+ Adobe Level III PostScript
276+ o PSD rw- Adobe Photoshop bitmap
277+ o PTIF rw- Pyramid encoded TIFF
278+ o PWP r-- Seattle Film Works
279+ o RAF r-- Fuji Photo RAW
280+ o RAS rw+ SUN Rasterfile
281+ o RGB rw+ Raw red, green, and blue samples
282+ o RGBA rw+ Raw red, green, blue, and matte samples
283+ o RLA r-- Alias/Wavefront image
284+ o RLE r-- Utah Run length encoded image
285+ o SCT r-- Scitex HandShake
286+ o SFW r-- Seattle Film Works
287+ o SGI rw+ Irix RGB image
288+ o SHTML -w- Hypertext Markup Language and a
289+ client-side image map
290+ o STEGANO r-- Steganographic image
291+ o SUN rw+ SUN Rasterfile
292+ o SVG rw+ Scalable Vector Gaphics
293+ o TEXT rw+ Raw text
294+ o TGA rw+ Truevision Targa image
295+ o TIFF rw+ Tagged Image File Format
296+ o TILE r-- Tile image with a texture
297+ o TIM r-- PSX TIM
298+ o TOPOL r-- TOPOL X Image
299+ o TTF r-- TrueType font
300+ o TXT rw+ Raw text
301+ o UIL -w- X-Motif UIL table
302+ o UYVY rw- 16bit/pixel interleaved YUV
303+ o VDA rw+ Truevision Targa image
304+ o VICAR rw- VICAR rasterfile format
305+ o VID rw+ Visual Image Directory
306+ o VIFF rw+ Khoros Visualization image
307+ o VST rw+ Truevision Targa image
308+ o WBMP rw- Wireless Bitmap (level 0) image
309+ o WMF r-- Windows Metafile
310+ o WPG r-- Word Perfect Graphics
311+ o X rw- X Image
312+ o X3F r-- Foveon X3 (Sigma/Polaroid) RAW
313+ o XBM rw- X Windows system bitmap (black
314+ and white)
315+ o XC r-- Constant image uniform color
316+ o XCF r-- GIMP image
317+ o XMP rw- Adobe XML metadata
318+ o XPM rw- X Windows system pixmap (color)
319+ o XV rw+ Khoros Visualization image
320+ o XWD rw- X Windows system window dump (color)
321+ o YUV rw- CCIR 601 4:1:1 or 4:2:2 (8-bit only)
322+
323+ Modes:
324+ r Read
325+ w Write
326+ + Multi-image
327+\'
328+\'
329+\fISupport for some of these formats require additional programs or libraries.
330+See README
331+in the source package for where to find optional additional software\fP.
332+\'
333+Note, a format delineated with + means that if more than one
334+image is specified, frames are combined into a single multi-image
335+file. Use \fB+adjoin\fP if you want a single image produced for each
336+frame.
337+\'
338+Your installation might not support all of the formats in the list.
339+To get an accurate listing of the formats supported by your particular
340+configuration, run "gm convert -list format".
341+\'
342+Raw images are expected to have one byte per pixel unless \fBgm\fP is
343+compiled in 16-bit quantum mode or in 32-bit quantum mode. Here, the
344+raw data is expected to be stored two or four bytes per pixel,
345+respectively, in most-significant-byte-first order. For example, you
346+can tell if \fBgm\fP was compiled in 16-bit mode by typing "gm
347+version" without any options, and looking for "Q:16" in the first line
348+of output.
349+.SH FILES AND FORMATS
350+\'
351+By default, the image format is determined by its magic number, i.e., the
352+first few bytes of the file. To specify
353+a particular image format, precede the filename with an image format name
354+and a colon (\fIi.e.\fP\fBps:image\fP) or specify the image type as the
355+filename suffix (\fIi.e.\fP\fBimage.ps\fP).
356+The magic number takes precedence over the filename suffix
357+and the prefix takes precedence over the magic number and the suffix
358+in input files.
359+When a file is read, its magic number is stored in the "image->magick"
360+string.
361+In output files, the prefix takes precedence over the filename suffix,
362+and the filename suffix takes precedence over the
363+"image->magick" string.
364+\'
365+To read the "built-in" formats (GRANITE, H, LOGO,
366+NETSCAPE, PLASMA, and ROSE) use a prefix (including the colon) without a
367+filename or suffix. To read the XC format, follow the colon with a color
368+specification. To read the CAPTION format, follow the colon with a text
369+string or with a filename prefixed with the at symbol (\fB@\fP).
370+\'
371+\'
372+When you specify \fBX\fP as your image type, the filename has special
373+meaning. It specifies an X window by \fBid, name\fP, or
374+\fBroot\fP. If
375+no filename is specified, the window is selected by clicking the mouse
376+in the desired window.
377+\'
378+Specify \fIinput_file\fP as \fB-\fP for standard input,
379+\fIoutput_file\fP as \fB-\fP for standard output.
380+If \fIinput_file\fP has the extension \fB.Z\fP or \fB.gz\fP, the
381+file is uncompressed with \fBuncompress\fP or \fBgunzip\fP
382+respectively.
383+If \fIoutput_file\fP has the extension \fB.Z\fP or \fB.gz\fP,
384+the file is compressed using with \fIcompress\fP or \fIgzip\fP respectively.
385+\'
386+Use an optional index enclosed in brackets after an input file name to
387+specify a desired subimage of a multi-resolution image format like
388+Photo CD (e.g. "img0001.pcd[4]") or a range for MPEG images
389+(e.g. "video.mpg[50-75]"). A subimage specification can be
390+disjoint (e.g. "image.tiff[2,7,4]"). For raw images, specify
391+a subimage with a geometry (e.g. -size 640x512
392+"image.rgb[320x256+50+50]"). Surround the image name with
393+quotation marks to prevent your shell from interpreting the square
394+brackets. Single images are written with the filename you
395+specify. However, multi-part images (e.g., a multi-page PostScript
396+document with \fB+adjoin\fP specified) may be written with the scene
397+number included as part of the filename. In order to include the scene
398+number in the filename, it is necessary to include a printf-style
399+%d format specification in the file name and use the +adjoin
400+option. For example,
401+\'
402+ image%02d.miff
403+\'
404+\'
405+writes files \fIimage00.miff, image01.miff,\fP etc. Only a single
406+specification is allowed within an output filename. If more than one
407+specification is present, it will be ignored. It is best to embed the
408+scene number in the base part of the file name, not in the extension,
409+because the extension will not be a recognizeable image type.
410+\'
411+When running a commandline utility, you can
412+prepend an at sign @ to a filename to read a list of image
413+filenames from that file. This is convenient in the event you have too
414+many image filenames to fit on the command line.
415+.SH OPTIONS
416+\'
417+Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on
418+the command line remains in effect for the set of images that follows,
419+until the set is terminated by the appearance of any option or \fB-noop\fP.
420+Some options only affect the decoding of images and others only the encoding.
421+The latter can appear after the final group of input images.
422+\'
423+This is a combined list of the command-line options used by the
424+GraphicsMagick utilities (\fIanimate\fP, \fIcompare\fP,
425+\fIcomposite\fP, \fIconvert\fP, \fIdisplay\fP, \fIidentify\fP,
426+\fIimport\fP, \fImogrify\fP and \fImontage\fP).
427+\'
428+\'
429+In this document, angle brackets ("<>") enclose variables and curly
430+brackets ("{}") enclose optional parameters. For example,
431+"\fB-fuzz <distance>{%}\fP" means you can use the
432+option "-fuzz 10"
433+or "-fuzz 2%".
434+\'
435+.TP
436+.B "-adjoin"
437+\fRjoin images into a single multi-image file
438+\'
439+By default, all images of an image sequence are stored in the same
440+file. However, some formats (e.g. JPEG) do not support storing more
441+than one image per file and only the first frame in an image sequence
442+will be saved unless the result is saved to separate files. Use
443+\fB+adjoin\fP to force saving multiple frames to multiple numbered
444+files. If \fB+adjoin\fP is used, then the output filename must
445+include a printf style formatting specification for the numeric part
446+of the filename. For example,
447+\'
448+ image%02d.miff
449+\'
450+.TP
451+.B "-affine \fI<matrix>"\fP
452+\fRdrawing transform matrix
453+\'
454+This option provides a transform matrix {sx,rx,ry,sy,tx,ty} for
455+use by subsequent \fB-draw\fP or \fB-transform\fP options.
456+.TP
457+.B "-antialias"
458+\fRremove pixel aliasing
459+\'
460+By default antialiasing algorithms are used when drawing objects (e.g. lines)
461+or rendering vector formats (e.g. WMF and Postscript). Use +antialias to
462+disable use of antialiasing algorithms. Reasons to disable antialiasing
463+include avoiding increasing colors in the image, or improving rendering speed.
464+.TP
465+.B "-append"
466+\fRappend a set of images
467+\'
468+This option creates a single image where the images in the original set
469+are stacked top-to-bottom. If they are not of the same width,
470+any narrow images will be expanded to fit using the background color.
471+Use \fB+append\fP to stack images left-to-right. The set of images
472+is terminated by the appearance of any option.
473+If the \fB-append\fP
474+option appears after all of the input images, all images are appended.
475+.TP
476+.B " \fI-asc-cdl <spec>"\fP
477+\fRapply ASC CDL color transform
478+\'
479+Applies ("bakes in") the ASC CDL, which is a format for the exchange
480+of basic primary color grading information between equipment and
481+software from different manufacturers. The format defines the math for
482+three functions: slope, offset and power. Each function uses a number
483+for the red, green, and blue color channels for a total of nine
484+numbers comprising a single color decision. The tenth number
485+(optional) is for chromiance (saturation) as specified by ASC CDL
486+1.2.
487+\'
488+The argument string is comma delimited and is in the following form
489+(but without invervening spaces or line breaks)
490+\'
491+ redslope,redoffset,redpower:
492+ greenslope,greenoffset,greenpower:
493+ blueslope,blueoffset,bluepower:
494+ saturation
495+\'
496+\'
497+with the unity (no change) specification being:
498+\'
499+ "1.0,0.0,1.0:1.0,0.0,1.0:1.0,0.0,1.0:1.0"
500+\'
501+.TP
502+.B "-authenticate \fI<string>"\fP
503+\fRdecrypt image with this password
504+\'
505+Use this option to supply a password for decrypting an image or an
506+image sequence, if it is being read from a format such as PDF that supports
507+encryption. Encrypting images being written is not supported.
508+.TP
509+.B "-auto-orient"
510+\fRorient (rotate) image so it is upright
511+\'
512+Adjusts the image orienation so that it is suitable for viewing. Uses
513+the orientation tag obtained from the image file or as supplied by the
514+\fB-orient\fP option.
515+.TP
516+.B "-average"
517+\fRaverage a set of images
518+\'
519+The set of images
520+is terminated by the appearance of any option.
521+If the \fB-average\fP
522+option appears after all of the input images, all images are averaged.
523+.TP
524+.B "-backdrop"
525+\fRdisplay the image centered on a backdrop.
526+\'
527+This backdrop covers the entire workstation screen and is useful for hiding
528+other X window activity while viewing the image. The color of the backdrop
529+is specified as the foreground color (X11 default is black).
530+Refer to
531+"X Resources", below,
532+for details.
533+.TP
534+.B "-background \fI<color>"\fP
535+\fRthe background color
536+\'
537+The color is specified using the format described under the \fB-fill\fP
538+option.
539+.TP
540+.B "-black-threshold \fIred[,green][,blue][,opacity]"\fP
541+\fRpixels below the threshold become black
542+\'
543+Use \fB-black-threshold\fP to set pixels with values below the specified
544+threshold to minimum value (black). If only one value is supplied, or the
545+red, green, and blue values are identical, then intensity thresholding is
546+used. If the color threshold values are not identical then channel-based
547+thresholding is used, and color distortion will occur. Specify a negative
548+value (e.g. -1) if you want a channel to be ignored but you do want to
549+threshold a channel later in the list. If a percent (%) symbol is
550+appended, then the values are treated as a percentage of maximum
551+range.
552+.TP
553+.B "-blue-primary \fI<x>,<y>"\fP
554+\fRblue chromaticity primary point
555+.TP
556+.B "-blur \fI<radius>{x<sigma>}"\fP
557+\fRblur the image with a Gaussian operator
558+\'
559+Blur with the given radius and
560+standard deviation (sigma).
561+.TP
562+.B "-border \fI<width>x<height>"\fP
563+\fRsurround the image with a border of color
564+\'
565+See \fB-geometry\fP for details
566+about the geometry specification.
567+.TP
568+.B "-bordercolor \fI<color>"\fP
569+\fRthe border color
570+\'
571+The color is specified using the format described under the \fB-fill\fP
572+option.
573+.TP
574+.B "-borderwidth \fI<geometry>"\fP
575+\fRthe border width
576+.TP
577+.B "-box \fI<color>"\fP
578+\fRset the color of the annotation bounding box
579+\'
580+The color is specified using the format described under the \fB-fill\fP
581+option.
582+\'
583+See \fB-draw\fP for further
584+details.
585+.TP
586+.B "-channel \fI<type>"\fP
587+\fRthe type of channel
588+\'
589+Choose from: \fBRed\fP, \fBGreen\fP, \fBBlue\fP, \fBOpacity\fP,
590+\fBMatte\fP, \fBCyan\fP, \fBMagenta\fP, \fBYellow\fP, \fBBlack\fP,
591+or \fBGray\fP.
592+\'
593+Use this option to extract a particular \fIchannel\fP from the image.
594+\fBOpacity\fP,
595+for example, is useful for extracting the opacity values from an image.
596+.TP
597+.B "-charcoal \fI<factor>"\fP
598+\fRsimulate a charcoal drawing
599+.TP
600+.B "-chop \fI<width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}"\fP
601+\fRremove pixels from the interior of an image
602+\'
603+\fIWidth\fP and \fIheight\fP give the number of columns and rows to remove,
604+and \fIx\fP and \fIy\fP are offsets that give the location of the
605+leftmost column and topmost row to remove.
606+\'
607+The \fIx\fP offset normally specifies the leftmost column to remove.
608+If the \fB-gravity\fP option is present with \fINorthEast, East,\fP
609+or \fISouthEast\fP
610+gravity, it gives the distance leftward from the right edge
611+of the image to the rightmost column to remove. Similarly, the \fIy\fP offset
612+normally specifies the topmost row to remove, but if
613+the \fB-gravity\fP option is present with \fISouthWest, South,\fP
614+or \fISouthEast\fP
615+gravity, it specifies the distance upward from the bottom edge of the
616+image to the bottom row to remove.
617+\'
618+The \fB-chop\fP option removes entire rows and columns,
619+and moves the remaining corner blocks leftward and upward to close the gaps.
620+.TP
621+.B "-clip"
622+\fRapply the clipping path, if one is present
623+\'
624+If a clipping path is present, it will be applied to subsequent operations.
625+\'
626+For example, if you type the following command:
627+\'
628+ gm convert -clip -negate cockatoo.tif negated.tif
629+\'
630+\'
631+only the pixels within the clipping path are negated.
632+\'
633+The \fB-clip\fP feature requires the XML library. If the XML library
634+is not present, the option is ignored.
635+.TP
636+.B "-coalesce"
637+\fRmerge a sequence of images
638+\'
639+Each image N in the sequence after Image 0 is replaced with the image
640+created by flattening images 0 through N.
641+\'
642+The set of images
643+is terminated by the appearance of any option.
644+If the \fB-coalesce\fP
645+option appears after all of the input images, all images are coalesced.
646+.TP
647+.B "-colorize \fI<value>"\fP
648+\fRcolorize the image with the pen color
649+\'
650+Specify the amount of colorization as a percentage. You can apply separate
651+colorization values to the red, green, and blue channels of the image with
652+a colorization value list delimited with slashes (e.g. 0/0/50).
653+\'
654+The \fB-colorize\fP option may be used in conjunction with \fB-modulate\fP
655+to produce a nice sepia toned image like:
656+\'
657+ gm convert input.ppm -modulate 115,0,100 \\
658+ -colorize 7,21,50 output.ppm.
659+\'
660+.TP
661+.B "-colormap \fI<type>"\fP
662+\fRdefine the colormap type
663+\'
664+Choose between \fBshared\fP or \fBprivate\fP.
665+\'
666+This option only applies when the default X server visual is \fIPseudoColor\fP
667+or \fIGRAYScale\fP. Refer to \fB-visual\fP for more details. By default,
668+a shared colormap is allocated. The image shares colors with other X clients.
669+Some image colors could be approximated, therefore your image may look
670+very different than intended. Choose \fBPrivate\fP and the image colors
671+appear exactly as they are defined. However, other clients may
672+go \fItechnicolor\fP when the image colormap is installed.
673+.TP
674+.B "-colors \fI<value>"\fP
675+\fRpreferred number of colors in the image
676+\'
677+The actual number of colors in the image may be less than your request,
678+but never more. Note, this is a color reduction option. Images with less
679+unique colors than specified with this option will have any duplicate or
680+unused colors removed. The ordering of an existing color palette may be
681+altered. When converting an image from color to grayscale, convert the
682+image to the gray colorspace before reducing the number of colors since
683+doing so is most efficient. Refer to <a
684+href="quantize.html">quantize for more details.
685+\'
686+Note, options \fB-dither\fP, \fB-colorspace\fP, and \fB-treedepth\fP
687+affect the color reduction algorithm.
688+.TP
689+.B "-colorspace \fI<value>"\fP
690+\fRthe type of colorspace
691+\'
692+Choices are:
693+\fBCineonLog\fP, \fBCMYK\fP, \fBGRAY\fP, \fBHSL\fP, \fBHWB\fP,
694+\fBOHTA\fP, \fBRGB\fP, \fBRec601Luma\fP, \fBRec709Luma\fP,
695+\fBRec601YCbCr\fP, \fBRec709YCbCr\fP, \fBTransparent\fP, \fBXYZ\fP,
696+\fBYCbCr\fP, \fBYIQ\fP, \fBYPbPr\fP, or \fBYUV\fP.
697+\'
698+Color reduction, by default, takes place in the RGB color space. Empirical
699+evidence suggests that distances in color spaces such as YUV or YIQ correspond
700+to perceptual color differences more closely than do distances in RGB space.
701+These color spaces may give better results when color reducing an image.
702+Refer to quantize for more details.
703+Two gray colorspaces are supported. The \fBRec601Luma\fP space is
704+based on the recommendations for legacy NTSC television (ITU-R
705+BT.601-5). The \fBRec709Luma\fP space is based on the
706+recommendations for HDTV (Rec. ITU-R BT.709-5) and is suitable for use
707+with computer graphics, and for contemporary CRT displays. The
708+\fBGRAY\fP colorspace currently selects the \fBRec601Luma\fP
709+colorspace by default for backwards compatibly reasons. This default
710+may be re-considered in the future.
711+\'
712+Two YCbCr colorspaces are supported. The \fBRec601YCbCr\fP space is
713+based on the recommendations for legacy NTSC television (ITU-R BT.601-5). The
714+\fBRec709CbCr\fP space is based on the recommendations for HDTV (Rec.
715+ITU-R BT.709-5) and is suitable for suitable for use with computer
716+graphics, and for contemporary CRT displays. The \fBYCbCr\fP colorspace
717+specification is equivalent to\fBRec601YCbCr\fP.
718+\'
719+\'
720+The \fBTransparent\fP color space behaves uniquely in that it preserves
721+the matte channel of the image if it exists.
722+\'
723+The \fB-colors\fP or \fB-monochrome\fP option, or saving to a file
724+format which requires color reduction, is required for this option to
725+take effect.
726+.TP
727+.B "-comment \fI<string>"\fP
728+\fRannotate an image with a comment
729+\'
730+Use this option to assign a specific comment to the image, when writing
731+to an image format that supports comments. You can include the
732+image filename, type, width, height, or other image attribute by embedding
733+special format characters listed under the \fB-format\fP option.
734+The comment is not drawn on the image, but is embedded in the image
735+datastream via a "Comment" tag or similar mechanism. If you want the
736+comment to be visible on the image itself, use the \fB-draw\fP option
737+instead.
738+\'
739+For example,
740+\'
741+ -comment "%m:%f %wx%h"
742+\'
743+\'
744+produces an image comment of \fBMIFF:bird.miff 512x480\fP for an image
745+titled \fBbird.miff\fP and whose width is 512 and height is 480.
746+\'
747+If the first character of \fIstring\fP is \fI@\fP, the image comment
748+is read from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string.
749+Please note that if the string comes from an untrusted source that it
750+should be sanitized before use since otherwise the content of an
751+arbitrary readable file could be incorporated in a comment in the
752+output file (a security risk).
753+\'
754+If the -comment option appears multiple times, only the last comment is
755+stored.
756+\'
757+In PNG images, the comment is stored in a \fBtEXt\fP or \fBzTXt\fP chunk
758+with the keyword "comment".
759+.TP
760+.B "-compose \fI<operator>"\fP
761+\fRthe type of image composition
762+\'
763+The description of composition uses abstract terminology in order to
764+allow the the description to be more clear, while avoiding constant
765+values which are specific to a particular build configuration. Each image
766+pixel is represented by red, green, and blue levels (which are equal for
767+a gray pixel). MaxRGB is the maximum integral value which may be stored
768+in the red, green, or blue channels of the image. Each image pixel may
769+also optionally (if the image matte channel is enabled) have an
770+associated level of opacity (ranging from opaque to transparent), which
771+may be used to determine the influence of the pixel color when
772+compositing the pixel with another image pixel. If the image matte
773+channel is disabled, then all pixels in the image are treated as opaque.
774+The color of an \fIopaque\fP pixel is fully visible while the color of a
775+\fItransparent\fP pixel color is entirely absent (pixel color is ignored).
776+\'
777+By definition, raster images have a rectangular shape. All image rows are
778+of equal length, and all image columns have the same number of rows. By
779+treating the opacity channel as a visual "mask" the rectangular image may
780+be given a "shape" by treating the opacity channel as a cookie-cutter for
781+the image. Pixels within the shape are opaque, while pixels outside the
782+shape are transparent. Pixels on the boundary of the shape may be between
783+opaque and transparent in order to provide antialiasing (visually smooth
784+edges). The description of the composition operators use this concept of
785+image "shape" in order to make the description of the operators easier to
786+understand. While it is convenient to describe the operators in terms of
787+"shapes" they are by no means limited to mask-style operations since they
788+are based on continuous floating-point mathematics rather than simple
789+boolean operations.
790+\'
791+By default, the \fIOver\fP composite operator is used. The following
792+composite operators are available:
793+\'
794+ Over
795+ In
796+ Out
797+ Atop
798+ Xor
799+ Plus
800+ Minus
801+ Add
802+ Subtract
803+ Difference
804+ Divide
805+ Multiply
806+ Bumpmap
807+ Copy
808+ CopyRed
809+ CopyGreen
810+ CopyBlue
811+ CopyOpacity
812+ CopyCyan
813+ CopyMagenta
814+ CopyYellow
815+ CopyBlack
816+\'
817+\'
818+The behavior of each operator is described below.
819+\'
820+.in 15
821+\'
822+.in 15
823+.B "Over"
824+.in 20
825+ \fR
826+.in 20
827+The result will be the union of the two image shapes, with opaque areas
828+of \fIchange-image\fP obscuring \fIbase-image\fP in the region of
829+overlap.
830+\'
831+.in 15
832+.in 15
833+.B "In"
834+.in 20
835+ \fR
836+.in 20
837+The result is simply \fIchange-image\fP cut by the shape of
838+\fIbase-image\fP. None of the image data of \fIbase-image\fP will be in
839+the result.
840+\'
841+.in 15
842+.in 15
843+.B "Out"
844+.in 20
845+ \fR
846+.in 20
847+The resulting image is \fIchange-image\fP with the shape of
848+\fIbase-image\fP cut out.
849+\'
850+.in 15
851+.in 15
852+.B "Atop"
853+.in 20
854+ \fR
855+.in 20
856+The result is the same shape as \fIbase-image\fP, with
857+\fIchange-image\fP obscuring \fIbase-image\fP where the image shapes
858+overlap. Note this differs from \fBover\fP because the portion of
859+\fIchange-image\fP outside \fIbase-image\fP's shape does not appear in
860+the result.
861+\'
862+.in 15
863+.in 15
864+.B "Xor"
865+.in 20
866+ \fR
867+.in 20
868+The result is the image data from both \fIchange-image\fP and
869+\fIbase-image\fP that is outside the overlap region. The overlap region
870+will be blank.
871+\'
872+.in 15
873+.in 15
874+.B "Plus"
875+.in 20
876+ \fR
877+.in 20
878+The result is just the sum of the image data. Output values are cropped
879+to MaxRGB (no overflow). This operation is independent of the matte
880+channels.
881+\'
882+.in 15
883+.in 15
884+.B "Minus"
885+.in 20
886+ \fR
887+.in 20
888+The result of \fIchange-image\fP - \fIbase-image\fP, with underflow
889+cropped to zero. The matte channel is ignored (set to opaque, full
890+coverage).
891+\'
892+.in 15
893+.in 15
894+.B "Add"
895+.in 20
896+ \fR
897+.in 20
898+The result of \fIchange-image\fP + \fIbase-image\fP, with overflow
899+wrapping around (\fImod\fP MaxRGB+1).
900+\'
901+.in 15
902+.in 15
903+.B "Subtract"
904+.in 20
905+ \fR
906+.in 20
907+The result of \fIchange-image\fP - \fIbase-image\fP, with underflow
908+wrapping around (\fImod\fP MaxRGB+1). The \fBadd\fP and \fBsubtract\fP
909+operators can be used to perform reversible transformations.
910+\'
911+.in 15
912+.in 15
913+.B "Difference"
914+.in 20
915+ \fR
916+.in 20
917+The result of abs(\fIchange-image\fP - \fIbase-image\fP). This is
918+useful for comparing two very similar images.
919+\'
920+.in 15
921+.in 15
922+.B "Divide"
923+.in 20
924+ \fR
925+.in 20
926+The result of \fIchange-image\fP / \fIbase-image\fP. This is useful
927+for improving the readability of text on unevenly illuminated photos (by
928+using a gaussian blurred copy of change-image as base-image).
929+\'
930+.in 15
931+.in 15
932+.B "Multiply"
933+.in 20
934+ \fR
935+.in 20
936+The result of \fIchange-image\fP * \fIbase-image\fP. This is useful for
937+the creation of drop-shadows.
938+\'
939+.in 15
940+.in 15
941+.B "Bumpmap"
942+.in 20
943+ \fR
944+.in 20
945+The result \fIbase-image\fP shaded by \fIchange-image\fP.
946+\'
947+.in 15
948+.in 15
949+.B "Copy"
950+.in 20
951+ \fR
952+.in 20
953+The resulting image is \fIbase-image\fP replaced with
954+\fIchange-image\fP. Here the matte information is ignored.
955+\'
956+.in 15
957+.in 15
958+.B "CopyRed"
959+.in 20
960+ \fR
961+.in 20
962+The resulting image is the red channel in \fIbase-image\fP replaced with
963+the red channel in \fIchange-image\fP. The other channels are copied
964+untouched.
965+\'
966+.in 15
967+.in 15
968+.B "CopyGreen"
969+.in 20
970+ \fR
971+.in 20
972+The resulting image is the green channel in \fIbase-image\fP replaced
973+with the green channel in \fIchange-image\fP. The other channels are
974+copied untouched.
975+\'
976+.in 15
977+.in 15
978+.B "CopyBlue"
979+.in 20
980+ \fR
981+.in 20
982+The resulting image is the blue channel in \fIbase-image\fP replaced
983+with the blue channel in \fIchange-image\fP. The other channels are
984+copied untouched.
985+\'
986+.in 15
987+.in 15
988+.B "CopyOpacity"
989+.in 20
990+ \fR
991+.in 20
992+The resulting image is the opacity channel in \fIbase-image\fP replaced
993+with the opacity channel in \fIchange-image\fP. The other channels are
994+copied untouched.
995+\'
996+.in 15
997+.in 15
998+.B "CopyCyan"
999+.in 20
1000+ \fR
1001+.in 20
1002+The resulting image is the cyan channel in \fIbase-image\fP replaced
1003+with the cyan channel in \fIchange-image\fP. The other channels are
1004+copied untouched. Use of this operator requires that base-image be in
1005+CMYK(A) colorspace.
1006+\'
1007+.in 15
1008+.in 15
1009+.B "CopyMagenta"
1010+.in 20
1011+ \fR
1012+.in 20
1013+The resulting image is the magenta channel in \fIbase-image\fP
1014+replaced with the magenta channel in \fIchange-image\fP. The other
1015+channels are copied untouched. Use of this operator requires that
1016+base-image be in CMYK(A) colorspace.
1017+\'
1018+.in 15
1019+.in 15
1020+.B "CopyYellow"
1021+.in 20
1022+ \fR
1023+.in 20
1024+The resulting image is the yellow channel in \fIbase-image\fP
1025+replaced with the yellow channel in \fIchange-image\fP. The other
1026+channels are copied untouched. Use of this operator requires that
1027+base-image be in CMYK(A) colorspace.
1028+\'
1029+.in 15
1030+.in 15
1031+.B "CopyBlack"
1032+.in 20
1033+ \fR
1034+.in 20
1035+The resulting image is the black channel in \fIbase-image\fP
1036+replaced with the black channel in \fIchange-image\fP. The other
1037+channels are copied untouched. Use of this operator requires that
1038+base-image be in CMYK(A) colorspace. If change-image is not in CMYK
1039+space, then the change-image pixel intensities are used.
1040+\'
1041+.in 15
1042+\'
1043+\'
1044+.TP
1045+.B "-compress \fI<type>"\fP
1046+\fRthe type of image compression
1047+\'
1048+Choices are: \fINone\fP, \fIBZip\fP, \fIFax\fP,
1049+\fIGroup3\fP, \fIGroup4\fP,
1050+\fIJPEG\fP, \fILossless\fP,
1051+\fILZW\fP, \fIRLE\fP, \fIZip\fP, \fILZMA\fP, \fIJPEG2000\fP,
1052+\fIJPEG2000\fP, \fIJBIG\fP, \fIJBIG2\fP, \fIWebP\fP, or \fIZSTD\fP.
1053+\'
1054+\'
1055+Specify \fB+compress\fP to store the binary image in an uncompressed format.
1056+The default is the compression type of the specified image file.
1057+\'
1058+\fI"Lossless"\fP refers to lossless JPEG, which is only available if
1059+the JPEG library has been patched to support it. Use of lossless JPEG is
1060+generally not recommended.
1061+\'
1062+Use the \fB-quality\fP option to set the compression level to be used
1063+by the JPEG, JPEG-2000, PNG, MIFF, MPEG, and TIFF encoders. Use the
1064+\fB-sampling-factor\fP option to set the sampling factor to be used
1065+by the DPX, JPEG, MPEG, and YUV encoders for downsampling the chroma
1066+channels.
1067+.TP
1068+.B "-contrast"
1069+\fRenhance or reduce the image contrast
1070+\'
1071+This option enhances the intensity differences between the lighter and
1072+darker elements of the image. Use \fB-contrast\fP to enhance
1073+the image
1074+or \fB+contrast\fP to reduce the image contrast.
1075+\'
1076+\'
1077+For a more pronounced effect you can repeat the option:
1078+\'
1079+ gm convert rose: -contrast -contrast rose_c2.png
1080+\'
1081+.TP
1082+.B "-convolve \fI<kernel>"\fP
1083+\fRconvolve image with the specified convolution kernel
1084+\'
1085+The kernel is specified as a comma-separated list of floating point
1086+values, ordered left-to right, starting with the top row. The order of
1087+the kernel is determined by the square root of the number of entries.
1088+Presently only square kernels are supported.
1089+.TP
1090+.B "-create-directories"
1091+\fRcreate output directory if required
1092+\'
1093+Use this option with \fB-output-directory\fP if the input paths contain
1094+subdirectories and it is desired to create similar subdirectories in the
1095+output directory. Without this option, \fBmogrify\fP will fail if the
1096+required output directory does not exist.
1097+.TP
1098+.B "-crop \fI<width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}"\fP
1099+\fRpreferred size and location of the cropped image
1100+\'
1101+See \fB-geometry\fP for details
1102+about the geometry specification.
1103+\'
1104+The width and height give the size of the image that remains after cropping,
1105+and \fIx\fP and \fIy\fP are offsets that give the location of the top left
1106+corner of the cropped
1107+image with respect to the original image. To specify the amount to be
1108+removed, use \fB-shave\fP instead.
1109+\'
1110+If the \fIx\fP and \fIy\fP offsets are present, a single image is
1111+generated, consisting of the pixels from the cropping region.
1112+The offsets specify the location of the upper left corner of
1113+the cropping region measured downward and rightward with respect to the
1114+upper left corner of the image.
1115+If the \fB-gravity\fP option is present with \fINorthEast, East,\fP
1116+or \fISouthEast\fP
1117+gravity, it gives the distance leftward from the right edge
1118+of the image to the right edge of the cropping region. Similarly, if
1119+the \fB-gravity\fP option is present with \fISouthWest, South,\fP
1120+or \fISouthEast\fP
1121+gravity, the distance is measured upward between the bottom
1122+edges.
1123+\'
1124+If the \fIx\fP and \fIy\fP offsets are omitted, a set of tiles of the
1125+specified geometry, covering the entire input image, is generated. The
1126+rightmost tiles and the bottom tiles are smaller if the
1127+specified geometry extends beyond the dimensions of the input image.
1128+.TP
1129+.B "-cycle \fI<amount>"\fP
1130+\fRdisplace image colormap by amount
1131+\'
1132+\fIAmount\fP defines the number of positions each colormap entry isshifted.
1133+\'
1134+.TP
1135+.B "-debug \fI<events>"\fP
1136+\fRenable debug printout
1137+\'
1138+The events parameter specifies which events are to be logged. It
1139+can be either None, All, or a comma-separated list
1140+consisting of one or more of the following domains:
1141+Annotate,
1142+Blob,
1143+Cache,
1144+Coder,
1145+Configure,
1146+Deprecate,
1147+Error,
1148+Exception,
1149+FatalError,
1150+Information,
1151+Locale,
1152+Option,
1153+Render,
1154+Resource,
1155+TemporaryFile,
1156+Transform,
1157+User.
1158+Warning, or
1159+X11,
1160+For example, to log cache and blob events, use
1161+\'
1162+ gm convert -debug "Cache,Blob" rose: rose.png
1163+\'
1164+\'
1165+The "User" domain is normally empty, but developers can log "User" events
1166+in their private copy of GraphicsMagick.
1167+\'
1168+Use the \fB-log\fP option to specify the format for debugging output.
1169+\'
1170+Use \fB+debug\fP to turn off all logging.
1171+\'
1172+An alternative to using \fB-debug\fP is to use the \fBMAGICK_DEBUG\fP
1173+environment variable. The allowed values for the \fBMAGICK_DEBUG\fP
1174+environment variable are the same as for the \fB-debug\fP option.
1175+.TP
1176+.B "-deconstruct"
1177+\fRbreak down an image sequence into constituent parts
1178+\'
1179+This option compares each image with the next in a sequence and
1180+returns the maximum bounding region of any pixel differences it discovers.
1181+This method can undo a coalesced sequence returned by the
1182+\fB-coalesce\fP option, and is useful for removing redundant information
1183+from a GIF or MNG animation.
1184+\'
1185+The sequence of images
1186+is terminated by the appearance of any option.
1187+If the \fB-deconstruct\fP
1188+option appears after all of the input images, all images are deconstructed.
1189+.TP
1190+.B "-define \fI<key>{=<value>},..."\fP
1191+\fRadd coder/decoder specific options
1192+This option creates one or more definitions for coders and
1193+decoders to use while reading and writing image data. Definitions
1194+may be passed to coders and decoders to control options that are
1195+specific to certain image formats. If \fIvalue\fP is missing for a
1196+definition, an empty-valued definition of a flag will be created with
1197+that name. This is used to control on/off options. Use +define
1198+<key>,... to remove definitions previously created. Use
1199++define "*" to remove all existing definitions.
1200+\'
1201+The following definitions may be created:
1202+\'
1203+.in 15
1204+\'
1205+.in 15
1206+.B "cineon:colorspace={rgb|cineonlog}"
1207+.in 20
1208+ \fR
1209+.in 20
1210+Use the cineon:colorspace option when reading a Cineon file to
1211+specify the colorspace the Cineon file uses. This overrides the colorspace
1212+type implied by the DPX header (if any).
1213+\'
1214+.in 15
1215+.in 15
1216+.B "dpx:bits-per-sample=<value>"
1217+.in 20
1218+ \fR
1219+.in 20
1220+If the dpx:bits-per-sample key is defined, GraphicsMagick will write
1221+DPX images with the specified bits per sample, overriding any existing
1222+depth value. If this option is not specified, then the value is based on
1223+the existing image depth value from the original image file. The DPX
1224+standard supports bits per sample values of 1, 8, 10, 12, and 16. Many
1225+DPX readers demand a sample size of 10 bits with type A padding (see
1226+below).
1227+\'
1228+.in 15
1229+.in 15
1230+.B "dpx:colorspace={rgb|cineonlog}"
1231+.in 20
1232+ \fR
1233+.in 20
1234+Use the dpx:colorspace option when reading a DPX file to
1235+specify the colorspace the DPX file uses. This overrides the colorspace
1236+type implied by the DPX header (if any).
1237+\'
1238+.in 15
1239+.in 15
1240+.B "dpx:packing-method={packed|a|b|lsbpad|msbpad}"
1241+.in 20
1242+ \fR
1243+.in 20
1244+DPX samples are output within 32-bit words. They may be tightly
1245+packed end-to-end within the words ("packed"), padded with null bits to
1246+the right of the sample ("a" or "lsbpad"), or padded with null bits to the
1247+left of the sample ("b" or "msbpad"). This option only has an effect for
1248+sample sizes of 10 or 12 bits. If samples are not packed, the DPX
1249+standard recommends type A padding. Many DPX readers demand a sample size
1250+of 10 bits with type A padding.
1251+\'
1252+.in 15
1253+.in 15
1254+.B "dpx:pixel-endian={lsb|msb}"
1255+.in 20
1256+ \fR
1257+.in 20
1258+Allows the user to specify the endian order of the pixels when
1259+reading or writing the DPX files. Sometimes this is useful if the file is
1260+(or must be) written incorrectly so that the file header and the pixels
1261+use different endianness.
1262+\'
1263+.in 15
1264+.in 15
1265+.B "dpx:swap-samples={true|false}"
1266+.in 20
1267+ \fR
1268+.in 15
1269+.B "dpx:swap-samples-read={true|false}"
1270+.in 20
1271+ \fR
1272+.in 15
1273+.B "dpx:swap-samples-write={true|false}"
1274+.in 20
1275+ \fR
1276+.in 20
1277+GraphicsMagick strives to adhere to the DPX standard but certain
1278+aspects of the standard can be quite confusing. As a result, some
1279+10-bit DPX files have Red and Blue interchanged, or Cb and Cr
1280+interchanged due to an different interpretation of the standard, or
1281+getting the wires crossed. The swap-samples option may be supplied
1282+when reading or writing in order to read or write using the necessary
1283+sample order. Use swap-samples-read when swapping should only occur
1284+in the reader, or swap-samples-write when swapping should only occur
1285+in the writer.
1286+\'
1287+.in 15
1288+.in 15
1289+.B "gradient:direction={South|North|West|East|NorthWest|NorthEast|SouthWest|SouthEast}"
1290+.in 20
1291+ \fR
1292+.in 20
1293+By default, the gradient coder produces a gradient from top to
1294+bottom ("South"). Since GraphicsMagick 1.3.35, the gradient direction
1295+may be specified to produce gradient vectors according to a
1296+gravity-like specification. The arguments are \fBSouth\fP (Top to
1297+Bottom), \fBNorth\fP (Bottom to Top), \fBWest\fP (Right to Left),
1298+\fBEast\fP (Left to Right), \fBNorthWest\fP (Bottom-Right to
1299+Top-Left), \fBNorthEast\fP (Bottom-Left to Top-Right),
1300+\fBSouthWest\fP (Top-Right Bottom-Left), and \fBSouthEast\fP
1301+(Top-Left to Bottom-Right).
1302+\'
1303+.in 15
1304+.in 15
1305+.B "jp2:rate=<value>"
1306+.in 20
1307+ \fR
1308+.in 20
1309+Specify the compression factor to use while writing JPEG-2000
1310+files. The compression factor is the reciprocal of the compression
1311+ratio. The valid range is 0.0 to 1.0, with 1.0 indicating lossless
1312+compression. If defined, this value overrides the -quality
1313+setting. The default quality setting of 75 results in a rate value of
1314+0.06641.
1315+\'
1316+.in 15
1317+.in 15
1318+.B "jpeg:block-smoothing={true|false}"
1319+.in 20
1320+ \fR
1321+.in 20
1322+Enables or disables block smoothing when reading a JPEG file
1323+(default enabled).
1324+\'
1325+.in 15
1326+.in 15
1327+.B "jpeg:dct-method=<value>"
1328+.in 20
1329+ \fR
1330+.in 20
1331+Selects the IJG JPEG library DCT implementation to use. The
1332+encoding implementations vary in speed and encoding error. The
1333+available choices for \fBvalue\fP are \fBislow\fP, \fBifast\fP,
1334+\fBfloat\fP, \fBdefault\fP and \fBfastest\fP. Note that
1335+\fBfastest\fP might not necessarily be fastest on your CPU, depending
1336+on the choices made when the JPEG library was built and how your CPU
1337+behaves.
1338+\'
1339+.in 15
1340+.in 15
1341+.B "jpeg:fancy-upsampling={true|false}"
1342+.in 20
1343+ \fR
1344+.in 20
1345+Enables or disables fancy upsampling when reading a JPEG file
1346+(default enabled).
1347+\'
1348+.in 15
1349+.in 15
1350+.B "jpeg:max-scan-number=<value>"
1351+.in 20
1352+ \fR
1353+.in 20
1354+Specifies an integer value for the maximum number of progressive
1355+scans allowed in a JPEG file. The default maximum is 100 scans. This
1356+limit is imposed due to a weakness in the JPEG standard which allows
1357+small JPEG files to take many minutes or hours to be read.
1358+\'
1359+.in 15
1360+.in 15
1361+.B "jpeg:max-warnings=<value>"
1362+.in 20
1363+ \fR
1364+.in 20
1365+Specifies an integer value for how many warnings are allowed for
1366+any given error type before being promoted to a hard error. JPEG
1367+files producing excessive warnings indicate a problem with the file.
1368+\'
1369+.in 15
1370+.in 15
1371+.B "jpeg:optimize-coding={true|false}"
1372+.in 20
1373+ \fR
1374+.in 20
1375+Selects if huffman encoding should be used. Huffman encoding is enabled
1376+by default, but may be disabled for very large images since it encoding
1377+requires that the entire image be buffered in memory. Huffman encoding
1378+produces smaller JPEG files at the expense of added compression time and
1379+memory consumption.
1380+\'
1381+.in 15
1382+.in 15
1383+.B "jpeg:preserve-settings"
1384+.in 20
1385+ \fR
1386+.in 20
1387+If the jpeg:preserve-settings flag is defined, the JPEG encoder will
1388+use the same "quality" and "sampling-factor" settings that were found
1389+in the input file, if the input was in JPEG format. These settings are
1390+also preserved if the input is a JPEG file and the output is a JNG
1391+file. If the colorspace of the output file differs from that of the
1392+input file, the quality setting is preserved but the sampling-factors
1393+are not.
1394+\'
1395+.in 15
1396+.in 15
1397+.B "pcl:fit-to-page"
1398+.in 20
1399+ \fR
1400+.in 20
1401+If the pcl:fit-to-page flag is defined, then the printer is
1402+requested to scale the image to fit the page size (width and/or
1403+height).
1404+.in 15
1405+.in 15
1406+.B "png:chunk-malloc-max=<value>"
1407+.in 20
1408+ \fR
1409+.in 20
1410+png:chunk-malloc-max specifies the maximum chunk size that libpng
1411+will be allowed to read. Libpng's default is normally 8,000,000
1412+bytes. Very rarely, a valid PNG file may be encountered where the
1413+error is reported "chunk data is too large". In this case, the limit
1414+may be increased using this option. Take care when increasing this
1415+limit since an excessively large limit could allow untrusted files to
1416+use excessive memory.
1417+\'
1418+.in 15
1419+.in 15
1420+.B "mng:maximum-loops=<value>"
1421+.in 20
1422+ \fR
1423+.in 20
1424+mng:maximum-loops specifies the maximum number of loops allowed to
1425+be specified by a MNG LOOP chunk. Without an imposed limit, a MNG file
1426+could request up to 2147483647 loops, which could run for a very long
1427+time. The current default limit is 512 loops.
1428+\'
1429+.in 15
1430+.in 15
1431+.B "pdf:use-cropbox={true|false}"
1432+.in 20
1433+ \fR
1434+.in 20
1435+If the pdf:use-cropbox flag is set to \fBtrue\fP, then
1436+Ghostscript is requested to apply the PDF crop box.
1437+\'
1438+.in 15
1439+.in 15
1440+.B "pdf:stop-on-error={true|false}"
1441+.in 20
1442+ \fR
1443+.in 20
1444+If the pdf:stop-on-error flag is set to \fBtrue\fP, then
1445+Ghostscript is requested to stop processing the PDF when the first
1446+error is encountered. Otherwise it will attempt to process all
1447+requested pages.
1448+\'
1449+.in 15
1450+.in 15
1451+.B "ps:imagemask"
1452+.in 20
1453+ \fR
1454+.in 20
1455+If the ps:imagemask flag is defined, the PS3 and EPS3 coders will
1456+create Postscript files that render bilevel images with the Postscript
1457+imagemask operator instead of the image operator.
1458+\'
1459+.in 15
1460+.in 15
1461+.B "ptif:minimum-geometry=<geometry>"
1462+.in 20
1463+ \fR
1464+.in 20
1465+If the ptif:minimum-geometry key is defined, GraphicsMagick will
1466+use it to determine the minimum frame size to output when writing a
1467+pyramid TIFF file (a TIFF file containing a succession of reduced
1468+versions of the first frame). The default minimum geometry is 32x32.
1469+\'
1470+.in 15
1471+.in 15
1472+.B "tiff:alpha={unspecified|associated|unassociated}"
1473+.in 20
1474+ \fR
1475+.in 20
1476+Specify the TIFF alpha channel type when reading or writing TIFF files,
1477+overriding the normal value. The default alpha channel type for new files
1478+is unspecified alpha. Existing alpha settings are preserved when
1479+converting from one TIFF file to another. When a TIFF file uses
1480+associated alpha, the image pixels are pre-multiplied (i.e. altered) with
1481+the alpha channel. Files with "associated" alpha appear as if they were
1482+alpha composited on a black background when the matte channel is
1483+disabled. If the unassociated alpha type is selected, then the alpha
1484+channel is saved without altering the pixels. Photoshop recognizes
1485+associated alpha as transparency information, if the file is saved with
1486+unassociated alpha, the alpha information is loaded as an independent
1487+channel. Note that for many years, ImageMagick and GraphicsMagick marked
1488+TIFF files as using associated alpha, without properly pre-multiplying
1489+the pixels.
1490+\'
1491+.in 15
1492+.in 15
1493+.B "tiff:fill-order={msb2lsb|lsb2msb}"
1494+.in 20
1495+ \fR
1496+.in 20
1497+If the tiff:fill-order key is defined, GraphicsMagick will use it to
1498+determine the bit fill order used while writing TIFF files. The normal default
1499+is "msb2lsb", which matches the native bit order of all modern CPUs. The
1500+only exception to this is when Group3 or Group4 FAX compression is
1501+requested since FAX machines send data in bit-reversed order and
1502+therefore RFC 2301 recommends using reverse order.
1503+\'
1504+.in 15
1505+.in 15
1506+.B "tiff:group-three-options=<value>"
1507+.in 20
1508+ \fR
1509+.in 20
1510+If the tiff:group-three-options key is defined, GraphicsMagick
1511+will use it to set the group3 options tag when writing
1512+group3-compressed TIFF. Please see the TIFF specification for the
1513+usage of this tag. The default value is 4.
1514+\'
1515+.in 15
1516+.in 15
1517+.B "tiff:ignore-tags=<tags>"
1518+.in 20
1519+ \fR
1520+.in 20
1521+If the tiff:ignore-tags key is defined, then it is used as a list
1522+of comma-delimited integer TIFF tag values to ignore while reading the
1523+TIFF file. This is useful in order to be able to read files which
1524+which otherwise fail to read due to problems with TIFF tags. Note
1525+that some TIFF tags are required in order to be able to read the image
1526+data at all.
1527+\'
1528+.in 15
1529+.in 15
1530+.B "tiff:report-warnings={false|true}"
1531+.in 20
1532+ \fR
1533+.in 20
1534+If the tiff:report-warnings key is defined and set to \fBtrue\fP,
1535+then TIFF warnings are reported as a warning exception rather than as
1536+a coder log message. Such warnings are reported after the image has
1537+been read or written. Most TIFF warnings are benign but sometimes
1538+they may help deduce problems with the TIFF file, or help detect that
1539+the TIFF file requires a special application to read successfully due
1540+to the use of proprietary or specialized extensions.
1541+\'
1542+.in 15
1543+.in 15
1544+.B "tiff:sample-format={unsigned|ieeefp}"
1545+.in 20
1546+ \fR
1547+.in 20
1548+If the tiff:sample-format key is defined, GraphicsMagick will use it to
1549+determine the sample format used while writing TIFF files. The default is
1550+"unsigned". Specify "ieeefp" in order to write floating-point TIFF
1551+files with float (32-bit) or double (64-bit) values. Use the
1552+tiff:bits-per-sample define to determine the type of floating-point value
1553+to use.
1554+\'
1555+.in 15
1556+.in 15
1557+.B "tiff:max-sample-value=<value>"
1558+.in 20
1559+ \fR
1560+.in 20
1561+If the tiff:max-sample-value key is defined, GraphicsMagick will use the
1562+assigned value as the maximum floating point value while reading or
1563+writing IEEE floating point TIFFs. Otherwise the maximum value is 1.0 or
1564+the value obtained from the file's SMaxSampleValue tag (if present). The
1565+floating point data is currently not scanned in advance to determine a
1566+best maximum sample value so if the range is not 1.0, or the
1567+SMaxSampleValue tag is not present, it may be necessary to
1568+(intelligently) use this parameter to properly read a file.
1569+\'
1570+.in 15
1571+.in 15
1572+.B "tiff:min-sample-value=<value>"
1573+.in 20
1574+ \fR
1575+.in 20
1576+If the tiff:min-sample-value key is defined, GraphicsMagick will use
1577+the assigned value as the minimum floating point value while reading or
1578+writing IEEE floating point TIFFs. Otherwise the minimum value is 0.0 or
1579+the value obtained from the file's SMinSampleValue tag (if present).
1580+\'
1581+.in 15
1582+.in 15
1583+.B "tiff:bits-per-sample=<value>"
1584+.in 20
1585+ \fR
1586+.in 20
1587+If the tiff:bits-per-sample key is defined, GraphicsMagick will write
1588+images with the specified bits per sample, overriding any existing depth
1589+value. Value may be any in the range of 1 to 32, or 64 when the default
1590+'unsigned' format is written, or 16/32/24/64 if IEEEFP format is written.
1591+Please note that the baseline TIFF 6.0 specification only requires
1592+readers to handle certain powers of two, and the values to be handled
1593+depend on the nature of the image (e.g. colormapped, grayscale, RGB, CMYK).
1594+\'
1595+.in 15
1596+.in 15
1597+.B "tiff:samples-per-pixel=<value>"
1598+.in 20
1599+ \fR
1600+.in 20
1601+If the tiff:samples-per-pixel key is defined to a value, the TIFF coder
1602+will write TIFF images with the defined samples per pixel, overriding any
1603+value stored in the image. This option should not normally be used.
1604+\'
1605+.in 15
1606+.in 15
1607+.B "tiff:rows-per-strip=<value>"
1608+.in 20
1609+ \fR
1610+.in 20
1611+Allows the user to specify the number of rows per TIFF strip.
1612+Rounded up to a multiple of 16 when using JPEG compression. Ignored when
1613+using tiles.
1614+\'
1615+.in 15
1616+.in 15
1617+.B "tiff:strip-per-page=true"
1618+.in 20
1619+ \fR
1620+.in 20
1621+Requests that the image is written in a single TIFF strip. This is
1622+normally the default when group3 or group4 compression is requested
1623+within reasonable limits. Requesting a single strip for large images may
1624+result in failure due to resource consumption in the writer or reader.
1625+\'
1626+.in 15
1627+.in 15
1628+.B "tiff:tile"
1629+.in 20
1630+ \fR
1631+.in 20
1632+Enable writing tiled TIFF (rather than stripped) using the default tile
1633+size. Tiled TIFF organizes the image as an array of smaller images
1634+(tiles) in order to enable random access.
1635+\'
1636+.in 15
1637+.in 15
1638+.B "tiff:tile-geometry=<width>x<height>"
1639+.in 20
1640+ \fR
1641+.in 20
1642+Specify the tile size to use while writing tiled TIFF. Width and
1643+height should be a multiple of 16. If the value is not a multiple of 16,
1644+then it will be rounded down. Enables tiled TIFF if it has not already
1645+been enabled. GraphicsMagick does not use tiled storage internally so
1646+tiles need to be converted back and forth from the internal
1647+scanline-oriented storage to tile-oriented storage. Testing with typical
1648+RGB images shows that useful square tile size values range from 128x128
1649+to 1024x1024. Large images which require using a disk-based pixel cache
1650+benefit from large tile sizes while images which fit in memory work well
1651+with smaller tile sizes.
1652+\'
1653+.in 15
1654+.in 15
1655+.B "tiff:tile-width=<width>"
1656+.in 20
1657+ \fR
1658+.in 20
1659+Specify the tile width to use while writing tiled TIFF. The tile height
1660+is then defaulted to an appropriate size. Width should be a multiple of
1661+16. If the value is not a multiple of 16, then it will be rounded down.
1662+Enables tiled TIFF if it has not already been enabled.
1663+\'
1664+.in 15
1665+.in 15
1666+.B "tiff:tile-height=<height>"
1667+.in 20
1668+ \fR
1669+.in 20
1670+Specify the tile height to use while writing tiled TIFF. The tile width
1671+is then defaulted to an appropriate size. Height should be a multiple of
1672+16. If the value is not a multiple of 16, then it will be rounded down.
1673+Enables tiled TIFF if it has not already been enabled.
1674+\'
1675+.in 15
1676+.in 15
1677+.B "tiff:webp-lossless={TRUE|FALSE}"
1678+.in 20
1679+ \fR
1680+.in 20
1681+Specify a value of \fBTRUE\fP to enable lossless mode while
1682+writing WebP-compressed TIFF files. The WebP \fBwebp:lossless\fP
1683+option may also be used. The quality factor set by the
1684+\fB-quality\fP option may be used to influence the level of effort
1685+expended while compressing.
1686+\'
1687+.in 15
1688+.in 15
1689+.B "tiff:zstd-compress-level=<value>"
1690+.in 20
1691+ \fR
1692+.in 20
1693+Specify the compression level to use while writing Zstd-compressed
1694+TIFF files. The valid range is 1 to 22. If this define is not
1695+specified, then the 'quality' value is used such that the default
1696+quality setting of 75 is translated to a compress level of 9 such that
1697+'quality' has a useful range of 10-184 if used for this purpose.
1698+\'
1699+.in 15
1700+.in 15
1701+.B "webp:lossless={true|false}"
1702+.in 20
1703+ \fR
1704+.in 20
1705+Enable lossless encoding.
1706+\'
1707+.in 15
1708+.in 15
1709+.B "webp:method={0-6}"
1710+.in 20
1711+ \fR
1712+.in 20
1713+Quality/speed trade-off.
1714+\'
1715+.in 15
1716+.in 15
1717+.B "webp:image-hint={default,graph,photo,picture}"
1718+.in 20
1719+ \fR
1720+.in 20
1721+Hint for image type.
1722+\'
1723+.in 15
1724+.in 15
1725+.B "webp:target-size=<integer>"
1726+.in 20
1727+ \fR
1728+.in 20
1729+Target size in bytes.
1730+\'
1731+.in 15
1732+.in 15
1733+.B "webp:target-psnr=<float>"
1734+.in 20
1735+ \fR
1736+.in 20
1737+Minimal distortion to try to achieve.
1738+\'
1739+.in 15
1740+.in 15
1741+.B "webp:segments={1-4}"
1742+.in 20
1743+ \fR
1744+.in 20
1745+Maximum number of segments to use.
1746+\'
1747+.in 15
1748+.in 15
1749+.B "webp:sns-strength={0-100}"
1750+.in 20
1751+ \fR
1752+.in 20
1753+Spatial Noise Shaping.
1754+\'
1755+.in 15
1756+.in 15
1757+.B "webp:filter-strength={0-100}"
1758+.in 20
1759+ \fR
1760+.in 20
1761+Filter strength.
1762+\'
1763+.in 15
1764+.in 15
1765+.B "webp:filter-sharpness={0-7}"
1766+.in 20
1767+ \fR
1768+.in 20
1769+Filter sharpness.
1770+\'
1771+.in 15
1772+.in 15
1773+.B "webp:filter-type={0,1}"
1774+.in 20
1775+ \fR
1776+.in 20
1777+Filtering type. 0 = simple, 1 = strong (only used if
1778+filter-strength > 0 or autofilter is enabled).
1779+\'
1780+.in 15
1781+.in 15
1782+.B "webp:auto-filter={true|false}"
1783+.in 20
1784+ \fR
1785+.in 20
1786+Auto adjust filter's strength.
1787+\'
1788+.in 15
1789+.in 15
1790+.B "webp:alpha-compression=<integer>"
1791+.in 20
1792+ \fR
1793+.in 20
1794+Algorithm for encoding the alpha plane (0 = none, 1 = compressed
1795+with WebP lossless). Default is 1.
1796+\'
1797+.in 15
1798+.in 15
1799+.B "webp:alpha-filtering=<integer>"
1800+.in 20
1801+ \fR
1802+.in 20
1803+Predictive filtering method for alpha plane. 0: none, 1: fast, 2:
1804+best. Default is 1.
1805+\'
1806+.in 15
1807+.in 15
1808+.B "webp:alpha-quality={0-100}"
1809+.in 20
1810+ \fR
1811+.in 20
1812+Between 0 (smallest size) and 100 (lossless). Default is 100.
1813+\'
1814+.in 15
1815+.in 15
1816+.B "webp:pass=[1..10]"
1817+.in 20
1818+ \fR
1819+.in 20
1820+Number of entropy-analysis passes.
1821+\'
1822+.in 15
1823+.in 15
1824+.B "webp:show-compressed={true|false}"
1825+.in 20
1826+ \fR
1827+.in 20
1828+Export the compressed picture back. In-loop filtering is not
1829+applied.
1830+\'
1831+.in 15
1832+.in 15
1833+.B "webp:preprocessing=[0,1,2]"
1834+.in 20
1835+ \fR
1836+.in 20
1837+0=none, 1=segment-smooth, 2=pseudo-random dithering
1838+\'
1839+.in 15
1840+.in 15
1841+.B "webp:partitions=[0-3]"
1842+.in 20
1843+ \fR
1844+.in 20
1845+log2(number of token partitions) in [0..3]. Default is 0 for
1846+easier progressive decoding.
1847+\'
1848+.in 15
1849+.in 15
1850+.B "webp:partition-limit={0-100}"
1851+.in 20
1852+ \fR
1853+.in 20
1854+Quality degradation allowed to fit the 512k limit on prediction
1855+modes coding (0: no degradation, 100: maximum possible
1856+degradation).
1857+\'
1858+.in 15
1859+.in 15
1860+.B "webp:emulate-jpeg-size={true|false}"
1861+.in 20
1862+ \fR
1863+.in 20
1864+If true, compression parameters will be remapped to better match
1865+the expected output size from JPEG compression. Generally, the output
1866+size will be similar but the degradation will be lower.
1867+\'
1868+.in 15
1869+.in 15
1870+.B "webp:thread-level=<integer>"
1871+.in 20
1872+ \fR
1873+.in 20
1874+If non-zero, try and use multi-threaded encoding.
1875+\'
1876+.in 15
1877+.in 15
1878+.B "webp:low-memory={true|false}"
1879+.in 20
1880+ \fR
1881+.in 20
1882+If set, reduce memory usage (but increase CPU use)
1883+\'
1884+.in 15
1885+.in 15
1886+.B "webp:use-sharp-yuv={true|false}"
1887+.in 20
1888+ \fR
1889+.in 20
1890+If set, if needed, use sharp (and slow) RGB->YUV conversion
1891+\'
1892+.in 15
1893+\'
1894+\'
1895+\'
1896+For example, to create a postscript file that will render only the black
1897+pixels of a bilevel image, use:
1898+\'
1899+ gm convert bilevel.tif -define ps:imagemask eps3:stencil.ps
1900+\'
1901+.TP
1902+.B "-delay \fI<1/100ths of a second>"\fP
1903+\fRdisplay the next image after pausing
1904+\'
1905+This option is useful for regulating the animation of image sequences
1906+\fIDelay/100\fP seconds must expire before the display
1907+of the next image. The default is no delay between each showing of the
1908+image sequence. The maximum delay is 65535.
1909+\'
1910+You can specify a delay range (e.g. \fI-delay 10-500\fP) which sets the
1911+minimum and maximum delay.
1912+.TP
1913+.B "-density \fI<width>x<height>"\fP
1914+\fRhorizontal and vertical resolution in pixels of the image
1915+This option specifies the image resolution to store while encoding a
1916+raster image or the canvas resolution while rendering (reading) vector
1917+formats such as Postscript, PDF, WMF, and SVG into a raster image. Image
1918+resolution provides the unit of measure to apply when rendering to an
1919+output device or raster image. The default unit of measure is in dots
1920+per inch (DPI). The \fB-units\fP option may be used to select dots per
1921+centimeter instead.
1922+ The default resolution is 72 dots per inch, which is equivalent to
1923+one point per pixel (Macintosh and Postscript standard). Computer
1924+screens are normally 72 or 96 dots per inch while printers typically
1925+support 150, 300, 600, or 1200 dots per inch. To determine the
1926+resolution of your display, use a ruler to measure the width of your
1927+screen in inches, and divide by the number of horizontal pixels (1024 on
1928+a 1024x768 display).
1929+If the file format supports it, this option may be used to update
1930+the stored image resolution. Note that Photoshop stores and obtains
1931+image resolution from a proprietary embedded profile. If this profile is
1932+not stripped from the image, then Photoshop will continue to treat the
1933+image using its former resolution, ignoring the image resolution
1934+specified in the standard file header.
1935+The density option is an attribute and does not alter the underlying
1936+raster image. It may be used to adjust the rendered size for desktop
1937+publishing purposes by adjusting the scale applied to the pixels. To
1938+resize the image so that it is the same size at a different resolution,
1939+use the \fB-resample\fP option.
1940+.TP
1941+.B "-depth \fI<value>"\fP
1942+\fRdepth of the image
1943+\'
1944+This is the number of bits of color to preserve in the image. Any value
1945+between 1 and \fBQuantumDepth\fP (build option) may be specified,
1946+although 8 or 16 are the most common values. Use this option to specify
1947+the depth of raw images whose depth is unknown such as GRAY, RGB, or
1948+CMYK, or to change the depth of any image after it has been read.
1949+The depth option is applied to the pixels immediately so it may be
1950+used as a form of simple compression by discarding the least significant
1951+bits. Reducing the depth in advance may speed up color quantization, and
1952+help create smaller file sizes when using a compression algorithm like
1953+LZW or ZIP.
1954+.TP
1955+.B "-descend"
1956+\fRobtain image by descending window hierarchy
1957+.TP
1958+.B "-despeckle"
1959+\fRreduce the speckles within an image
1960+.TP
1961+.B "-displace \fI<horizontal scale>x<vertical scale>"\fP
1962+\fRshift image pixels as defined by a displacement map
1963+\'
1964+With this option, \fIcomposite image\fP is used as a displacement map. Black,
1965+within the displacement map, is a maximum positive displacement. White is a
1966+maximum negative displacement and middle gray is neutral. The displacement
1967+is scaled to determine the pixel shift. By default, the displacement applies
1968+in both the horizontal and vertical directions. However, if you specify
1969+\fImask\fP, \fIcomposite image\fP is the horizontal X displacement and
1970+\fImask\fP the vertical Y displacement.
1971+.TP
1972+.B "-display \fI<host:display[.screen]>"\fP
1973+\fRspecifies the X server to contact
1974+\'
1975+This option is used with convert for
1976+obtaining image or font from this X server. See \fIX(1)\fP.
1977+.TP
1978+.B "-dispose \fI<method>"\fP
1979+\fRGIF disposal method
1980+\'
1981+The Disposal Method indicates the way in which the graphic is to
1982+be treated after being displayed.
1983+\'
1984+Here are the valid methods:
1985+\'
1986+ Undefined No disposal specified.
1987+ None Do not dispose between frames.
1988+ Background Overwrite the image area with
1989+ the background color.
1990+ Previous Overwrite the image area with
1991+ what was there prior to rendering
1992+ the image.
1993+\'
1994+.TP
1995+.B "-dissolve \fI<percent>"\fP
1996+\fRdissolve an image into another by the given percent
1997+\'
1998+The opacity of the composite image is multiplied by the given percent,
1999+then it is composited over the main image.
2000+.TP
2001+.B "-dither"
2002+\fRapply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image
2003+\'
2004+The basic strategy of dithering is to trade intensity resolution for spatial
2005+resolution by averaging the intensities of several neighboring pixels.
2006+Images which suffer from severe contouring when reducing colors can be
2007+improved with this option.
2008+\'
2009+The \fB-colors\fP or \fB-monochrome\fP option is required for this option
2010+to take effect.
2011+\'
2012+Use \fB+dither\fP to turn off dithering and to render PostScript
2013+without text or graphic aliasing. Disabling dithering often (but not
2014+always) leads to decreased processing time.
2015+.TP
2016+.B "-draw \fI<string>"\fP
2017+\fRannotate an image with one or more graphic primitives
2018+\'
2019+Use this option to annotate an image with one or more graphic primitives.
2020+The primitives include shapes, text, transformations,
2021+and pixel operations. The shape primitives are
2022+\'
2023+ point x,y
2024+ line x0,y0 x1,y1
2025+ rectangle x0,y0 x1,y1
2026+ roundRectangle x0,y0 x1,y1 wc,hc
2027+ arc x0,y0 x1,y1 a0,a1
2028+ ellipse x0,y0 rx,ry a0,a1
2029+ circle x0,y0 x1,y1
2030+ polyline x0,y0 ... xn,yn
2031+ polygon x0,y0 ... xn,yn
2032+ Bezier x0,y0 ... xn,yn
2033+ path path specification
2034+ image operator x0,y0 w,h filename
2035+\'
2036+\'
2037+The text primitive is
2038+\'
2039+ text x0,y0 string
2040+\'
2041+\'
2042+The text gravity primitive is
2043+\'
2044+ gravity NorthWest, North, NorthEast, West, Center,
2045+ East, SouthWest, South, or SouthEast
2046+\'
2047+\'
2048+The text gravity primitive only affects the placement of text and
2049+does not interact with the other primitives. It is equivalent to
2050+using the \fB-gravity\fP commandline option, except that it is
2051+limited in scope to the \fB-draw\fP option in which it appears.
2052+\'
2053+The transformation primitives are
2054+\'
2055+ rotate degrees
2056+ translate dx,dy
2057+ scale sx,sy
2058+ skewX degrees
2059+ skewY degrees
2060+\'
2061+\'
2062+The pixel operation primitives are
2063+\'
2064+ color x0,y0 method
2065+ matte x0,y0 method
2066+\'
2067+\'
2068+The shape primitives are drawn in the color specified in the preceding
2069+\fB-stroke\fP option. Except for the \fBline\fP and \fBpoint\fP
2070+primitives, they are filled with the color specified in the preceding
2071+\fB-fill\fP option. For unfilled shapes, use -fill none.
2072+\'
2073+\fBPoint\fP requires a single coordinate.
2074+\'
2075+\fBLine\fP requires a start and end coordinate.
2076+\'
2077+\fBRectangle\fP
2078+expects an upper left and lower right coordinate.
2079+\'
2080+\fBRoundRectangle\fP has the upper left and lower right coordinates
2081+and the width and height of the corners.
2082+\'
2083+\fBCircle\fP has a center coordinate and a coordinate for
2084+the outer edge.
2085+\'
2086+Use \fBArc\fP to inscribe an elliptical arc within
2087+a rectangle. Arcs require a start and end point as well as the degree
2088+of rotation (e.g. 130,30 200,100 45,90).
2089+\'
2090+Use \fBEllipse\fP to draw a partial ellipse
2091+centered at the given point with the x-axis and y-axis radius
2092+and start and end of arc in degrees (e.g. 100,100 100,150 0,360).
2093+\'
2094+Finally, \fBpolyline\fP and \fBpolygon\fP require
2095+three or more coordinates to define its boundaries.
2096+Coordinates are integers separated by an optional comma. For example,
2097+to define a circle centered at 100,100
2098+that extends to 150,150 use:
2099+\'
2100+ -draw 'circle 100,100 150,150'
2101+\'
2102+\'
2103+\fBPaths\fP
2104+(See Paths)
2105+represent an outline of an object which is defined in terms of
2106+moveto (set a new current point), lineto (draw a straight line),
2107+curveto (draw a curve using a cubic Bezier), arc (elliptical or
2108+circular arc) and closepath (close the current shape by drawing a line
2109+to the last moveto) elements. Compound paths (i.e., a path with
2110+subpaths, each consisting of a single moveto followed by one or more
2111+line or curve operations) are possible to allow effects such as
2112+"donut holes" in objects.
2113+\'
2114+Use \fBimage\fP to composite an image with another image. Follow the
2115+image keyword with the composite operator, image location, image size,
2116+and filename:
2117+\'
2118+ -draw 'image Over 100,100 225,225 image.jpg'
2119+\'
2120+\'
2121+You can use 0,0 for the image size, which means to use the actual
2122+dimensions found in the image header. Otherwise, it will
2123+be scaled to the given dimensions.
2124+See \fB-compose\fP for a description of the composite operators.
2125+\'
2126+Use \fBtext\fP to annotate an image with text. Follow the text
2127+coordinates with a string. If the string has embedded spaces, enclose it
2128+in single or double quotes. Optionally you can include the image
2129+filename, type, width, height, or other image attribute by embedding
2130+special format character. See \fB-comment\fP for details.
2131+\'
2132+For example,
2133+\'
2134+\'
2135+ -draw 'text 100,100 "%m:%f %wx%h"'
2136+\'
2137+\'
2138+annotates the image with MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image titled
2139+bird.miff
2140+and whose width is 512 and height is 480.
2141+\'
2142+If the first character of \fIstring\fP is \fI@\fP, the text is read
2143+from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string. Please
2144+note that if the string comes from an untrusted source that it should
2145+be sanitized before use (a security risk).
2146+\'
2147+\fBRotate\fP rotates subsequent shape primitives and text primitives about
2148+the origin of the main image. If the \fB-region\fP option precedes the
2149+\fB-draw\fP option, the origin for transformations is the upper left
2150+corner of the region.
2151+\'
2152+\fBTranslate\fP translates them.
2153+\'
2154+\fBScale\fP scales them.
2155+\'
2156+\fBSkewX\fP and \fBSkewY\fP skew them with respect to the origin of
2157+the main image or the region.
2158+\'
2159+The transformations modify the current affine matrix, which is initialized
2160+from the initial affine matrix defined by the \fB-affine\fP option.
2161+Transformations are cumulative within the \fB-draw\fP option.
2162+The initial affine matrix is not affected; that matrix is only changed by the
2163+appearance of another \fB-affine\fP option. If another \fB-draw\fP
2164+option appears, the current affine matrix is reinitialized from
2165+the initial affine matrix.
2166+\'
2167+Use \fBcolor\fP to change the color of a pixel to the fill color (see
2168+\fB-fill\fP). Follow the pixel coordinate
2169+with a method:
2170+\'
2171+ point
2172+ replace
2173+ floodfill
2174+ filltoborder
2175+ reset
2176+\'
2177+\'
2178+Consider the target pixel as that specified by your coordinate. The
2179+\fBpoint\fP
2180+method recolors the target pixel. The \fBreplace\fP method recolors any
2181+pixel that matches the color of the target pixel.
2182+\fBFloodfill\fP recolors
2183+any pixel that matches the color of the target pixel and is a neighbor,
2184+whereas \fBfilltoborder\fP recolors any neighbor pixel that is not the
2185+border color. Finally, \fBreset\fP recolors all pixels.
2186+\'
2187+Use \fBmatte\fP to the change the pixel matte value to transparent. Follow
2188+the pixel coordinate with a method (see the \fBcolor\fP primitive for
2189+a description of methods). The \fBpoint\fP method changes the matte value
2190+of the target pixel. The \fBreplace\fP method changes the matte value
2191+of any pixel that matches the color of the target pixel. \fBFloodfill\fP
2192+changes the matte value of any pixel that matches the color of the target
2193+pixel and is a neighbor, whereas
2194+\fBfilltoborder\fP changes the matte
2195+value of any neighbor pixel that is not the border color (\fB-bordercolor\fP).
2196+Finally \fBreset\fP changes the matte value of all pixels.
2197+\'
2198+You can set the primitive color, font, and font bounding box
2199+color with
2200+\fB-fill\fP, \fB-font\fP, and \fB-box\fP respectively. Options
2201+are processed in command line order so be sure to use these
2202+options \fIbefore\fP the \fB-draw\fP option.
2203+.TP
2204+.B "-edge \fI<radius>"\fP
2205+\fRdetect edges within an image
2206+.TP
2207+.B "-emboss \fI<radius>"\fP
2208+\fRemboss an image
2209+.TP
2210+.B "-encoding \fI<type>"\fP
2211+\fRspecify the text encoding
2212+\'
2213+Choose from \fIAdobeCustom, AdobeExpert, AdobeStandard, AppleRoman,
2214+BIG5, GB2312, Latin 2, None, SJIScode, Symbol, Unicode, Wansung.\fP
2215+.TP
2216+.B "-endian \fI<type>"\fP
2217+\fRspecify endianness (MSB, LSB, or Native) of image
2218+\'
2219+\fIMSB\fP indicates big-endian (e.g. SPARC, Motorola 68K) while
2220+\fILSB\fP indicates little-endian (e.g. Intel 'x86, VAX) byte
2221+ordering. \fINative\fP indicates to use the normal ordering for the
2222+current CPU. This option currently only influences the CMYK, DPX,
2223+GRAY, RGB, and TIFF, formats.
2224+\'
2225+Use \fB+endian\fP to revert to unspecified endianness.
2226+.TP
2227+.B "-enhance"
2228+\fRapply a digital filter to enhance a noisy image
2229+.TP
2230+.B "-equalize"
2231+\fRperform histogram equalization to the image
2232+.TP
2233+.B "-extent \fI<width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>"\fP
2234+\fRcomposite image on background color canvas image
2235+\'
2236+This option composites the image on a new background color
2237+(\fB-background\fP) canvas image of size <width>x<height>. The
2238+existing image content is composited at the position specified by
2239+geometry x and y offset and/or desired gravity (\fB-gravity\fP) using
2240+the current image compose (\fB-compose\fP) method. Image content
2241+which falls outside the bounds of the new image dimensions is
2242+discarded.
2243+\'
2244+For example, this command creates a thumbnail of an image, and centers
2245+it on a red color backdrop image, offsetting the canvas ten pixels to
2246+the left and five pixels up, with respect to the thumbnail:
2247+\'
2248+ gm convert infile.jpg -thumbnail 120x80 -background red -gravity center \\
2249+ -extent 140x100-10-5 outfile.jpg
2250+\'
2251+\'
2252+This command reduces or expands a JPEG image to fit on an 800x600
2253+display:
2254+\'
2255+ gm convert -size 800x600 input.jpg \\
2256+ -resize 800x600 -background black \\
2257+ -compose Copy -gravity center \\
2258+ -extent 800x600 \\
2259+ -quality 92 output.jpg
2260+\'
2261+\'
2262+If the aspect ratio of the input image isn't exactly 4:3, then the
2263+image is centered on an 800x600 black canvas.
2264+.TP
2265+.B "-file \fI<filename>"\fP
2266+\fRwrite annotated difference image to file
2267+\'
2268+If \fB-file\fP is specified, then an annotated difference image is
2269+generated and written to the specified file. Pixels which differ between
2270+the \fBreference\fP and \fBcompare\fP images are modified from those in
2271+the \fBcompare\fP image so that the changed pixels become more obvious.
2272+Some images may require use of an alternative highlight style (see
2273+\fB-highlight-style\fP) or highlight color (see \fB-highlight-color\fP)
2274+before the changes are obvious.
2275+.TP
2276+.B "-fill \fI<color>"\fP
2277+\fRcolor to use when filling a graphic primitive
2278+\'
2279+Colors are represented in GraphicsMagick in the same form used by SVG. Use "gm convert -list color" to list named colors:
2280+\'
2281+ name (named color)
2282+ #RGB (hex numbers, 4 bits each)
2283+ #RRGGBB (8 bits each)
2284+ #RRRGGGBBB (12 bits each)
2285+ #RRRRGGGGBBBB (16 bits each)
2286+ #RGBA (4 bits each)
2287+ #RRGGBBAA (8 bits each)
2288+ #RRRGGGBBBAAA (12 bits each)
2289+ #RRRRGGGGBBBBAAAA (16 bits each)
2290+ rgb(r,g,b) (r,g,b are decimal numbers)
2291+ rgba(r,g,b,a) (r,g,b,a are decimal numbers)
2292+\'
2293+\'
2294+Enclose the color specification in quotation marks to prevent the "#"
2295+or the parentheses from being interpreted by your shell.
2296+\'
2297+For example,
2298+\'
2299+ gm convert -fill blue ...
2300+ gm convert -fill "#ddddff" ...
2301+ gm convert -fill "rgb(65000,65000,65535)" ...
2302+\'
2303+\'
2304+The shorter forms are scaled up, if necessary by replication. For example,
2305+#3af, #33aaff, and #3333aaaaffff are all equivalent.
2306+\'
2307+See \fB-draw\fP for further details.
2308+.TP
2309+.B "-filter \fI<type>"\fP
2310+\fRuse this type of filter when resizing an image
2311+\'
2312+Use this option to affect the resizing operation of an image (see
2313+\fB-geometry\fP).
2314+Choose from these filters (ordered by approximate increasing CPU
2315+time):
2316+\'
2317+ Point
2318+ Box
2319+ Triangle
2320+ Hermite
2321+ Hanning
2322+ Hamming
2323+ Blackman
2324+ Gaussian
2325+ Quadratic
2326+ Cubic
2327+ Catrom
2328+ Mitchell
2329+ Lanczos
2330+ Bessel
2331+ Sinc
2332+\'
2333+\'
2334+The default filter is automatically selected to provide the best quality
2335+while consuming a reasonable amount of time. The \fBMitchell\fP filter
2336+is used if the image supports a palette, supports a matte channel, or is
2337+being enlarged, otherwise the \fBLanczos\fP filter is used.
2338+.TP
2339+.B "-flatten"
2340+\fRflatten a sequence of images
2341+\'
2342+In some file formats (e.g. Photoshop's PSD) complex images may be
2343+represented by "layers" (independent images) which must be composited
2344+in order to obtain the final rendition. The \fB-flatten\fP option
2345+accomplishes this composition. The sequence of images is replaced by
2346+a single image created by compositing each image in turn, while
2347+respecting composition operators and page offsets. While
2348+\fB-flatten\fP is immediately useful for eliminating layers, it is
2349+also useful as a general-purpose composition tool.
2350+\'
2351+The sequence of images is terminated by the appearance of any option.
2352+If the \fB-flatten\fP option appears after all of the input images,
2353+all images are flattened. Also see \fB-mosaic\fP which is similar to
2354+\fB-flatten\fP except that it adds a suitably-sized canvas base
2355+image.
2356+\'
2357+For example, this composites an image on top of a 640x400 transparent
2358+black canvas image:
2359+\'
2360+ gm convert -size 640x300 xc:transparent \\
2361+ -compose over -page +0-100 \\
2362+ frame.png -flatten output.png
2363+\'
2364+\'
2365+and this flattens a Photoshop PSD file:
2366+\'
2367+ gm convert input.psd -flatten output.png
2368+\'
2369+.TP
2370+.B "-flip"
2371+\fRcreate a "mirror image"
2372+\'
2373+reflect the scanlines in the vertical direction.
2374+.TP
2375+.B "-flop"
2376+\fRcreate a "mirror image"
2377+\'
2378+reflect the scanlines in the horizontal direction.
2379+.TP
2380+.B "-font \fI<name>"\fP
2381+\fRuse this font when annotating the image with text
2382+\'
2383+You can tag a font to specify whether it is a PostScript, TrueType, or X11
2384+font. For example, Arial.ttf is a TrueType font, ps:helvetica
2385+is PostScript, and x:fixed is X11.
2386+.TP
2387+.B "-foreground \fI<color>"\fP
2388+\fRdefine the foreground color
2389+\'
2390+The color is specified using the format described under the \fB-fill\fP
2391+option.
2392+.TP
2393+.B "-format \fI<type>"\fP
2394+\fRthe image format type
2395+\'
2396+When used with the \fBmogrify\fP utility,
2397+this option will convert any image to the image format you specify.
2398+See \fIGraphicsMagick(1)\fP for a list of image format types supported by
2399+\fBGraphicsMagick\fP, or see the output of 'gm -list format'.
2400+\'
2401+By default the file is written to its original name. However, if the
2402+filename extension matches a supported format, the extension is replaced
2403+with the image format type specified with \fB-format\fP. For example,
2404+if you specify \fItiff\fP as the format type and the input image
2405+filename is \fIimage.gif\fP, the output image filename becomes
2406+\fIimage.tiff\fP.
2407+.TP
2408+.B "-format \fI<string>"\fP
2409+\fRoutput formatted image characteristics
2410+\'
2411+When used with the \fBidentify\fP utility, or the \fBconvert\fP
2412+utility with output written to the 'info:-' file specification, use
2413+this option to print information about the image in a format of your
2414+choosing. You can include the image filename, type, width, height,
2415+Exif data, or other image attributes by embedding special format
2416+characters:
2417+\'
2418+ %b file size
2419+ %c comment
2420+ %d directory
2421+ %e filename extension
2422+ %f filename
2423+ %g page dimensions and offsets
2424+ %h height
2425+ %i input filename
2426+ %k number of unique colors
2427+ %l label
2428+ %m magick
2429+ %n number of scenes
2430+ %o output filename
2431+ %p page number
2432+ %q image bit depth
2433+ %r image type description
2434+ %s scene number
2435+ %t top of filename
2436+ %u unique temporary filename
2437+ %w width
2438+ %x horizontal resolution
2439+ %y vertical resolution
2440+ %A transparency supported
2441+ %C compression type
2442+ %D GIF disposal method
2443+ %G Original width and height
2444+ %H page height
2445+ %M original filename specification
2446+ %O page offset (x,y)
2447+ %P page dimensions (width,height)
2448+ %Q compression quality
2449+ %T time delay (in centi-seconds)
2450+ %U resolution units
2451+ %W page width
2452+ %X page horizontal offset (x)
2453+ %Y page vertical offset (y)
2454+ %@ trim bounding box
2455+ %# signature
2456+ \\n newline
2457+ \\r carriage return
2458+ %% %
2459+\'
2460+\'
2461+For example,
2462+\'
2463+ -format "%m:%f %wx%h"
2464+\'
2465+\'
2466+displays \fBMIFF:bird.miff 512x480\fP for an image
2467+titled \fBbird.miff\fP and whose width is 512 and height is 480.
2468+\'
2469+If the first character of \fIstring\fP is \fB@\fP, the format is
2470+read from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string.
2471+Please note that if the string comes from an untrusted source that it
2472+should be sanitized before use since this may be used to incorporate
2473+any readable file on the system (a security risk).
2474+\'
2475+The values of image type (\fB%r\fP) which may be returned include:
2476+\'
2477+ Bilevel
2478+ Grayscale
2479+ GrayscaleMatte
2480+ Palette
2481+ PaletteMatte
2482+ TrueColor
2483+ TrueColorMatte
2484+ ColorSeparation
2485+ ColorSeparationMatte
2486+ Optimize
2487+\'
2488+\'
2489+You can also use the following special formatting syntax to print Exif
2490+information contained in the file:
2491+\'
2492+ %[EXIF:<tag>]
2493+\'
2494+\'
2495+Where "<tag>" may be one of the following:
2496+\'
2497+ * (print all Exif tags, in keyword=data format)
2498+ ! (print all Exif tags, in tag_number format)
2499+ #hhhh (print data for Exif tag #hhhh)
2500+ ImageWidth
2501+ ImageLength
2502+ BitsPerSample
2503+ Compression
2504+ PhotometricInterpretation
2505+ FillOrder
2506+ DocumentName
2507+ ImageDescription
2508+ Make
2509+ Model
2510+ StripOffsets
2511+ Orientation
2512+ SamplesPerPixel
2513+ RowsPerStrip
2514+ StripByteCounts
2515+ XResolution
2516+ YResolution
2517+ PlanarConfiguration
2518+ ResolutionUnit
2519+ TransferFunction
2520+ Software
2521+ DateTime
2522+ Artist
2523+ WhitePoint
2524+ PrimaryChromaticities
2525+ TransferRange
2526+ JPEGProc
2527+ JPEGInterchangeFormat
2528+ JPEGInterchangeFormatLength
2529+ YCbCrCoefficients
2530+ YCbCrSubSampling
2531+ YCbCrPositioning
2532+ ReferenceBlackWhite
2533+ CFARepeatPatternDim
2534+ CFAPattern
2535+ BatteryLevel
2536+ Copyright
2537+ ExposureTime
2538+ FNumber
2539+ IPTC/NAA
2540+ ExifOffset
2541+ InterColorProfile
2542+ ExposureProgram
2543+ SpectralSensitivity
2544+ GPSInfo
2545+ ISOSpeedRatings
2546+ OECF
2547+ ExifVersion
2548+ DateTimeOriginal
2549+ DateTimeDigitized
2550+ ComponentsConfiguration
2551+ CompressedBitsPerPixel
2552+ ShutterSpeedValue
2553+ ApertureValue
2554+ BrightnessValue
2555+ ExposureBiasValue
2556+ MaxApertureValue
2557+ SubjectDistance
2558+ MeteringMode
2559+ LightSource
2560+ Flash
2561+ FocalLength
2562+ MakerNote
2563+ UserComment
2564+ SubSecTime
2565+ SubSecTimeOriginal
2566+ SubSecTimeDigitized
2567+ FlashPixVersion
2568+ ColorSpace
2569+ ExifImageWidth
2570+ ExifImageLength
2571+ InteroperabilityOffset
2572+ FlashEnergy
2573+ SpatialFrequencyResponse
2574+ FocalPlaneXResolution
2575+ FocalPlaneYResolution
2576+ FocalPlaneResolutionUnit
2577+ SubjectLocation
2578+ ExposureIndex
2579+ SensingMethod
2580+ FileSource
2581+ SceneType
2582+\'
2583+\'
2584+JPEG specific information (from reading a JPEG file) may be obtained
2585+like this:
2586+\'
2587+ %[JPEG-<tag>]
2588+\'
2589+\'
2590+Where "<tag>" may be one of the following:
2591+\'
2592+ * (all JPEG-related tags, in
2593+ keyword=data format)
2594+ Quality IJG JPEG "quality" estimate
2595+ Colorspace JPEG colorspace numeric ID
2596+ Colorspace-Name JPEG colorspace name
2597+ Sampling-factors JPEG sampling factors
2598+\'
2599+\'
2600+Please note that JPEG has no notion of "quality" and that the quality
2601+metric used by, and estimated by the software is based on the quality
2602+metric established by IJG JPEG 6b. Other encoders (e.g. that used by
2603+Adobe Photoshop) use different encoding metrics.
2604+\'
2605+Surround the format specification with quotation marks to prevent your shell
2606+from misinterpreting any spaces and square brackets.
2607+.TP
2608+.B "-frame \fI<width>x<height>+<outer bevel width>+<inner bevel width>"\fP
2609+\fRsurround the image with an ornamental border
2610+\'
2611+See \fB-geometry\fP for details about the geometry
2612+specification. The \fB-frame\fP option is not affected by the
2613+\fB-gravity\fP option.
2614+\'
2615+The color of the border is specified with the \fB-mattecolor\fP
2616+command line option.
2617+.TP
2618+.B "-frame"
2619+\fRinclude the X window frame in the imported image
2620+.TP
2621+.B "-fuzz \fI<distance>{%}"\fP
2622+\fRcolors within this Euclidean distance are considered equal
2623+\'
2624+A number of algorithms search for a target color. By default the color
2625+must be exact. Use this option to match colors that are close (in
2626+Euclidean distance) to the target color in RGB 3D space. For example,
2627+if you want to automatically trim the edges of an image with
2628+\fB-trim\fP but the image was scanned and the target background color
2629+may differ by a small amount. This option can account for these
2630+differences.
2631+\'
2632+The \fIdistance\fP can be in absolute intensity units or, by appending
2633+\fI"%"\fP, as a percentage of the maximum possible intensity (255,
2634+65535, or 4294967295).
2635+.TP
2636+.B "-gamma \fI<value>"\fP
2637+\fRlevel of gamma correction
2638+\'
2639+The same color image displayed on two different workstations may look
2640+different due to differences in the display monitor. Use gamma
2641+correction to adjust for this color difference. Reasonable values extend
2642+from \fB0.8\fP to \fB2.3\fP. Gamma less than 1.0 darkens the image and
2643+gamma greater than 1.0 lightens it. Large adjustments to image gamma may
2644+result in the loss of some image information if the pixel quantum size
2645+is only eight bits (quantum range 0 to 255).
2646+\'
2647+You can apply separate gamma values to the red, green, and blue channels
2648+of the image with a gamma value list delimited with slashes
2649+(e.g., \fB1.7\fP/\fB2.3\fP/\fB1.2\fP).
2650+\'
2651+Use \fB+gamma\fP \fIvalue\fP
2652+to set the image gamma level without actually adjusting
2653+the image pixels. This option is useful if the image is of a known gamma
2654+but not set as an image attribute (e.g. PNG images).
2655+.TP
2656+.B "-gaussian \fI<radius>{x<sigma>}"\fP
2657+\fRblur the image with a Gaussian operator
2658+\'
2659+Use the given radius and standard deviation (sigma).
2660+.TP
2661+.B "-geometry \fI<width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@}{!}{^}{<}{>}"\fP
2662+\fRSpecify dimension, offset, and resize options.
2663+\'
2664+The \fB-geometry\fP option is used for a number of different
2665+purposes, depending on the utility it is used with.
2666+\'
2667+For the X11 commands ('animate', 'display', and 'import'), it
2668+specifies the preferred size and location of the Image window. By
2669+default, the window size is the image size and the location is chosen
2670+by you (or your window manager) when it is mapped.
2671+ For the 'import', 'convert', 'mogrify' utility commands it may be
2672+used to specify the desired size when resizing an image. In this
2673+case, symbols representing resize options may be appended to the
2674+geometry string to influence how the resize request is treated.
2675+\'
2676+See later notes corresponding to usage by particular commands. The
2677+following notes apply to when \fB-geometry\fP is used to express a
2678+resize request, taking into account the current properties of the
2679+image.
2680+\'
2681+By default, the width and height are maximum values. That is, the
2682+image is expanded or contracted to fit the width and height value
2683+while maintaining the aspect ratio of the image.
2684+\'
2685+Append a ^ to the geometry so that the image aspect ratio is
2686+maintained when the image is resized, but the resulting width or
2687+height are treated as minimum values rather than maximum values.
2688+\'
2689+Append a ! (exclamation point) to the geometry to force the image size to
2690+exactly the size you specify. For example, if you specify
2691+640x480! the image width is set to 640 pixels and height to
2692+480.
2693+\'
2694+If only the width is specified, without the trailing 'x', then height
2695+is set to width (e.g., -geometry 100 is the same as
2696+-geometry 100x100). If only the width is specified but with
2697+the trailing 'x', then width assumes the value and the height is
2698+chosen to maintain the aspect ratio of the image. Similarly, if only
2699+the height is specified prefixed by 'x' (e.g., -geometry
2700+x256), the width is chosen to maintain the aspect ratio.
2701+\'
2702+To specify a percentage width or height instead, append %. The image size
2703+is multiplied by the width and height percentages to obtain the final image
2704+dimensions. To increase the size of an image, use a value greater than
2705+100 (e.g. 125%). To decrease an image's size, use a percentage less than
2706+100.
2707+\'
2708+Use @ to specify the maximum area in pixels of an image.
2709+\'
2710+Use > to change the dimensions of the image \fIonly\fP if
2711+its width or height exceeds the geometry specification. < resizes
2712+the image \fIonly\fP if both of its dimensions are less than the geometry
2713+specification. For example,
2714+if you specify '640x480>' and the image size is 256x256, the image
2715+size does not change. However, if the image is 512x512 or 1024x1024, it is
2716+resized to 480x480. Enclose the geometry specification in quotation marks to
2717+prevent the < or > from being interpreted by your shell
2718+as a file redirection.
2719+\'
2720+When used with \fIanimate\fP and \fIdisplay\fP, offsets are handled in
2721+the same manner as in \fIX(1)\fP and the \fB-gravity\fP option is not used.
2722+If the \fIx\fP is negative, the offset is measured leftward
2723+from the right edge of the
2724+screen to the right edge of the image being displayed.
2725+Similarly, negative \fIy\fP is measured between the bottom edges. The
2726+offsets are not affected by "%"; they are always measured in pixels.
2727+\'
2728+When used as a \fIcomposite\fP option, \fB-geometry\fP
2729+gives the dimensions of the image and its location with respect
2730+to the composite image. If the \fB-gravity\fP option is present
2731+with \fINorthEast, East,\fP or \fISouthEast\fP gravity, the \fIx\fP
2732+represents the distance from the right edge of the image to the right edge of
2733+the composite image. Similarly, if the \fB-gravity\fP option is present
2734+with \fISouthWest, South,\fP or \fISouthEast\fP gravity, \fIy\fP
2735+is measured between the bottom edges. Accordingly, a positive offset will
2736+never point in the direction outside of the image. The
2737+offsets are not affected by "%"; they are always measured in pixels.
2738+To specify the dimensions of the composite image, use the \fB-resize\fP
2739+option.
2740+\'
2741+When used as a \fIconvert\fP, \fIimport\fP or \fImogrify\fP option,
2742+\fB-geometry\fP is synonymous with \fB-resize\fP and
2743+specifies the size of the output image. The offsets, if present, are ignored.
2744+\'
2745+When used as a \fImontage\fP option, \fB-geometry\fP specifies the image
2746+size and border size for each tile; default is 256x256+0+0. Negative
2747+offsets (border dimensions) are meaningless. The \fB-gravity\fP
2748+option affects the placement of the image within the tile; the default
2749+gravity for this purpose is \fICenter\fP. If the "%" sign appears in
2750+the geometry specification, the tile size is the specified percentage of
2751+the original dimensions of the first tile.
2752+To specify the dimensions of the montage, use the \fB-resize\fP
2753+option.
2754+.TP
2755+.B "-gravity \fI<type>"\fP
2756+\fRdirection primitive gravitates to when annotating the image.
2757+\'
2758+Choices are: NorthWest, North,
2759+NorthEast, West, Center, East, SouthWest, South, SouthEast.
2760+\'
2761+The direction you choose specifies where to position the text
2762+when annotating
2763+the image. For example \fICenter\fP gravity forces the text to be centered
2764+within the image. By default, the image gravity is \fINorthWest\fP.
2765+See \fB-draw\fP for more details about graphic primitives. Only the
2766+text primitive is affected by the \fB-gravity\fP option.
2767+\'
2768+The \fB-gravity\fP option is also used in concert with the \fB-geometry\fP
2769+option and other options that take \fB<geometry>\fP as a parameter, such
2770+as the \fB-crop\fP option. See \fB-geometry\fP for details of how the
2771+\fB-gravity\fP option interacts with the
2772+\fB<x>\fP and \fB<y>\fP parameters of a geometry
2773+specification.
2774+\'
2775+When used as an option to \fIcomposite\fP, \fB-gravity\fP
2776+gives the direction that the image gravitates within the composite.
2777+\'
2778+When used as an option to \fImontage\fP, \fB-gravity\fP gives the direction
2779+that an image gravitates within a tile. The default gravity is \fICenter\fP
2780+for this purpose.
2781+.TP
2782+.B "-green-primary \fI<x>,<y>"\fP
2783+\fRgreen chromaticity primary point
2784+.TP
2785+.B "-hald-clut \fI<clut>"\fP
2786+\fRapply a Hald CLUT to the image
2787+\'
2788+A Hald CLUT ("Color Look-Up Table") is a special square color image
2789+which contains a look-up table for red, green, and blue. The size of
2790+the Hald CLUT image is determined by its order. The width (and
2791+height) of a Hald CLUT is the cube of the order. For example, a Hald
2792+CLUT of order 8 is 512x512 pixels (262,144 colors) and of order 16 is
2793+4096x4096 (16,777,216 colors). A special CLUT is the identity CLUT
2794+which which causes no change to the input image. In order to use the
2795+Hald CLUT, one takes an identity CLUT and adjusts its colors in some
2796+way. The modified CLUT can then be used to transform any number of
2797+images in an identical way.
2798+\'
2799+GraphicsMagick contains a built-in identity CLUT generator via the
2800+\fBIDENTITY\fP coder. For example reading from the file name
2801+\fPIDENTITY:8\fP returns an identity CLUT of order 8. Typical Hald
2802+CLUT identity images have an order of between 8 and 16. The default
2803+order for the \fBIDENTITY\fP CLUT generator is 8. Interpolation is
2804+used so it is not usually necessary for CLUT images to be very large.
2805+The PNG file format is ideal for storing Hald CLUT images because it
2806+compresses them very well.
2807+.TP
2808+.B "-help"
2809+\fRprint usage instructions
2810+.TP
2811+.B "-highlight-color \fI<color>"\fP
2812+\fRpixel annotation color
2813+\'
2814+Specifies the color to use when annotating difference pixels.
2815+.TP
2816+.B "-highlight-style \fI<style>"\fP
2817+\fRpixel annotation style
2818+\'
2819+Specifies the pixel difference annotation style used to draw attention to
2820+changed pixels. May be one of \fBAssign\fP, \fBThreshold\fP,
2821+\fBTint\fP, or \fBXOR\fP; where \fBAssign\fP replaces the pixel with
2822+the highlight color (see \fB-highlight-color\fP), \fBThreshold\fP
2823+replaces the pixel with black or white based on the difference in
2824+intensity, \fBTint\fP alpha tints the pixel with the highlight color,
2825+and \fBXOR\fP does an XOR between the pixel and the highlight color.
2826+.TP
2827+.B "-iconGeometry \fI<geometry>"\fP
2828+\fRspecify the icon geometry
2829+\'
2830+Offsets, if present in the geometry specification, are handled in
2831+the same manner as the \fB-geometry\fP option, using X11 style to handle
2832+negative offsets.
2833+.TP
2834+.B "-iconic"
2835+\fRiconic animation
2836+.TP
2837+.B "-immutable"
2838+\fRmake image immutable
2839+.TP
2840+.B "-implode \fI<factor>"\fP
2841+\fRimplode image pixels about the center
2842+.TP
2843+.B "-intent \fI<type>"\fP
2844+\fRuse this type of rendering intent when managing the image color
2845+\'
2846+Use this option to affect the the color management operation of an image (see
2847+\fB-profile\fP).
2848+Choose from these intents:
2849+\fBAbsolute, Perceptual, Relative, Saturation\fP.
2850+\'
2851+The default intent is undefined.
2852+.TP
2853+.B "-interlace \fI<type>"\fP
2854+\fRthe type of interlacing scheme
2855+\'
2856+Choices are: \fBNone, Line, Plane,\fP
2857+or \fBPartition\fP. The default is \fBNone\fP.
2858+\'
2859+This option is used to specify the type of interlacing scheme for raw image
2860+formats such as \fBRGB\fP or \fBYUV\fP.
2861+\fBNone\fP means do not interlace
2862+(RGBRGBRGBRGBRGBRGB...),
2863+\'
2864+\fBLine\fP uses scanline interlacing
2865+(RRR...GGG...BBB...RRR...GGG...BBB...),
2866+and
2867+\fBPlane\fP uses plane interlacing (RRRRRR...GGGGGG...BBBBBB...).
2868+\'
2869+\fBPartition\fP
2870+is like plane except the different planes are saved to individual files
2871+(e.g. image.R, image.G, and image.B).
2872+\'
2873+Use \fBLine\fP to create an \fBinterlaced PNG\fP or \fB GIF\fP or
2874+\fBprogressive JPEG\fP image.
2875+.TP
2876+.B "-label \fI<name>"\fP
2877+\fRassign a label to an image
2878+\'
2879+Use this option to assign a specific label to the image, when writing
2880+to an image format that supports labels, such as TIFF, PNG, MIFF, or
2881+PostScript. You can include the the image filename, type, width, height,
2882+or other image attribute by embedding special format character. A label
2883+is not drawn on the image, but is embedded in the image datastream via
2884+a "Label" tag or similar mechanism. If you want the
2885+label to be visible on the image itself, use the \fB-draw\fP option.
2886+See \fB-comment\fP for details.
2887+\'
2888+For example,
2889+\'
2890+ -label "%m:%f %wx%h"
2891+\'
2892+\'
2893+produces an image label of \fBMIFF:bird.miff 512x480\fP for an image titled
2894+\fBbird.miff\fP
2895+and whose width is 512 and height is 480.
2896+\'
2897+If the first character of \fIstring\fP is \fI@\fP, the image label
2898+is read from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string.
2899+Please note that if the string comes from an untrusted source that it
2900+should be sanitized before use since otherwise the content of an
2901+arbitrary readable file might be incorporated into the image
2902+label (a security risk).
2903+\'
2904+If the -label option appears multiple times, only the last label is
2905+stored.
2906+\'
2907+In PNG images, the label is stored in a \fBtEXt\fP or \fBzTXt\fP chunk
2908+with the keyword "label".
2909+\'
2910+When converting to \fIPostScript\fP, use this option to specify a header
2911+string to print above the image. Specify the label font with
2912+\fB-font\fP.
2913+\'
2914+When creating a montage, by default the label associated with an image
2915+is displayed with the corresponding tile in the montage. Use the
2916+\fB+label\fP option to suppress this behavior.
2917+\'
2918+\'
2919+.TP
2920+.B "-lat \fI<width>x<height>{+-}<offset>{%}"\fP
2921+\fRperform local adaptive thresholding
2922+\'
2923+Perform local adaptive thresholding using the specified width, height,
2924+and offset. The offset is a distance in sample space from the mean,
2925+as an absolute integer ranging from 0 to the maximum sample value or
2926+as a percentage. If the percent option is supplied, then the offset
2927+is computed as a percentage of the quantum range. It is strongly
2928+recommended to use the percent option so that results are not
2929+sensitive to pixel quantum depth.
2930+\'
2931+For example,
2932+\'
2933+ -colorspace gray -lat "10x10-5%"
2934+\'
2935+\'
2936+will help clarify a scanned grayscale or color document, producing a
2937+bi-level equivalent.
2938+.TP
2939+.B "-level \fI<black_point>{,<gamma>}{,<white_point>}{%}"\fP
2940+\fRadjust the level of image contrast
2941+\'
2942+Give one, two or three values delimited with commas: black-point, gamma,
2943+white-point (e.g. 10,1.0,250 or 2%,0.5,98%). The black and white
2944+points range from 0 to MaxRGB or from 0 to 100%; if the white point is
2945+omitted it is set to MaxRGB-black_point. If a "%" sign is present
2946+anywhere in the string, the black and white points are percentages of
2947+MaxRGB. Gamma is an exponent that ranges from 0.1 to 10.; if it is
2948+omitted, the default of 1.0 (no gamma correction) is assumed. This
2949+interface works similar to Photoshop's "Image->Adjustments->Levels..."
2950+"Input Levels" interface.
2951+.TP
2952+.B "-limit \fI<type> <value>"\fP
2953+\fRDisk, File, Map, Memory, Pixels, Width, Height or Threads resource limit
2954+\'
2955+By default, resource limits are estimated based on the available
2956+resources of the system. The resource limits are \fBDisk\fP, maximum
2957+total disk space consumed; \fBFile\fP, maximum number of file
2958+descriptors allowed to be open at once; \fBMap\fP, maximum total
2959+number of file bytes which may be memory mapped; \fBMemory\fP,
2960+maximum total number of bytes of heap memory used for image storage;
2961+\fBPixels\fP, maximum absolute image size (per image); \fBWidth\fP,
2962+maximum image pixels width; \fBHeight\fP, maximum image pixels
2963+height; and \fBThreads\fP, the maximum number of worker threads to
2964+use per OpenMP thread team.
2965+\'
2966+These resource limits are used to decide if (for a given image) the
2967+decoded image ("pixel cache") should be stored in heap memory (RAM),
2968+in a memory-mapped disk file, or in a disk file accessed via
2969+read/write I/O. The number of total pixels in one image, and/or the
2970+width/height, may also be limited in order to force the reading, or
2971+creation of images larger than the limit (in pixels) to intentionally
2972+fail. The disk limit establishes an overall limit since using the disk
2973+is the means of last resort. When the disk limit has been reached, no
2974+more images may be read.
2975+\'
2976+The value argument is an absolute value, but may have standard binary
2977+suffix characters applied ('K', 'M', 'G', 'T', 'P', 'E') to apply a
2978+scaling to the value (based on a multiplier of 1024). Any additional
2979+characters are ignored. For example, '-limit Pixels 10MP' limits
2980+the maximum image size to 10 megapixels and '-limit memory 32MB
2981+-limit map 64MB' limits memory and memory mapped files to 32
2982+megabytes and 64 megabytes respectively.
2983+\'
2984+Resource limits may also be set using environment variables. The
2985+environment variables \fBMAGICK_LIMIT_DISK\fP,
2986+\fBMAGICK_LIMIT_FILES\fP, \fBMAGICK_LIMIT_MAP\fP,
2987+\fBMAGICK_LIMIT_MEMORY\fP, \fBMAGICK_LIMIT_PIXELS\fP,
2988+\fBMAGICK_LIMIT_WIDTH\fP, \fBMAGICK_LIMIT_HEIGHT\fP,and
2989+\fBOMP_NUM_THREADS\fP may be used to set the limits for disk space,
2990+open files, memory mapped size, heap memory, per-image pixels, image
2991+width, image height, and threads respectively.
2992+\'
2993+Use the option -list resource list the current limits.
2994+.TP
2995+.B "-linewidth"
2996+\fRthe line width for subsequent draw operations
2997+.TP
2998+.B "-list \fI<type>"\fP
2999+\fRthe type of list
3000+\'
3001+Choices are: \fBColor\fP, \fBDelegate\fP, \fBFormat\fP, \fBMagic\fP,
3002+\fBModule\fP, \fBResource\fP, or \fBType\fP. The \fBModule\fP option
3003+is only available if GraphicsMagick was built to support loadable modules.
3004+\'
3005+This option lists information about the GraphicsMagick configuration.
3006+.TP
3007+.B "-log \fI<string>"\fP
3008+\fRSpecify format for debug log
3009+\'
3010+This option specifies the format for the log printed when the \fB-debug\fP
3011+option is active.
3012+\'
3013+You can display the following components by embedding
3014+special format characters:
3015+\'
3016+ %d domain
3017+ %e event
3018+ %f function
3019+ %l line
3020+ %m module
3021+ %p process ID
3022+ %r real CPU time
3023+ %t wall clock time
3024+ %u user CPU time
3025+ %% percent sign
3026+ \\n newline
3027+ \\r carriage return
3028+\'
3029+\'
3030+For example:
3031+\'
3032+ gm convert -debug coders -log "%u %m:%l %e" in.gif out.png
3033+\'
3034+\'
3035+The default behavior is to print all of the components.
3036+.TP
3037+.B "-loop \fI<iterations>"\fP
3038+\fRadd Netscape loop extension to your GIF animation
3039+\'
3040+A value other than zero forces the animation to repeat itself up to
3041+\fIiterations\fP
3042+times.
3043+.TP
3044+.B "-magnify"
3045+\fRmagnify the image
3046+\'
3047+The image size is doubled using linear interpolation.
3048+.TP
3049+.B "-magnify \fI<factor>"\fP
3050+\fRmagnify the image
3051+\'
3052+The displayed image is magnified by \fBfactor\fP.
3053+.TP
3054+.B "-map \fI<filename>"\fP
3055+\fRchoose a particular set of colors from this image
3056+\'
3057+[\fIconvert\fP or \fImogrify\fP]
3058+\'
3059+By default, color reduction chooses an optimal set of colors that best
3060+represent the original image. Alternatively, you can choose a particular
3061+set of colors from an image file with this option.
3062+\'
3063+Use
3064+\fB+map\fP to reduce
3065+all images in the image sequence that follows to a single optimal set of colors
3066+that best represent all the images. The sequence of images
3067+is terminated by the appearance of any option.
3068+If the \fB+map\fP
3069+option appears after all of the input images, all images are mapped.
3070+.TP
3071+.B "-map \fI<type>"\fP
3072+\fRdisplay image using this type.
3073+\'
3074+[\fIanimate\fP or \fIdisplay\fP]
3075+\'
3076+Choose from these \fIStandard Colormap\fP types:
3077+\'
3078+ best
3079+ default
3080+ gray
3081+ red
3082+ green
3083+ blue
3084+\'
3085+\'
3086+The \fIX server\fP must support the \fIStandard Colormap\fP you choose,
3087+otherwise an error occurs. Use \fBlist\fP as the type and \fBdisplay\fP
3088+searches the list of colormap types in \fBtop-to-bottom\fP order until
3089+one is located. See \fIxstdcmap(1)\fP for one way of creating Standard
3090+Colormaps.
3091+.TP
3092+.B "-mask \fI<filename>"\fP
3093+\fRSpecify a clipping mask
3094+\'
3095+The image read from the file is used as a clipping mask. It must have
3096+the same dimensions as the image being masked.
3097+\'
3098+If the mask image contains an opacity channel, the opacity of each
3099+pixel is used to define the mask. Otherwise, the intensity (gray
3100+level) of each pixel is used. Unmasked (black) pixels are modified
3101+while masked pixels (not black) are protected from alteration.
3102+\'
3103+Use \fB+mask\fP to remove the clipping mask.
3104+\'
3105+It is not necessary to use \fB-clip\fP to activate the mask; \fB-clip\fP
3106+is implied by \fB-mask\fP.
3107+.TP
3108+.B "-matte"
3109+\fRstore matte channel if the image has one
3110+\'
3111+If the image does not have a matte channel, create an opaque one.
3112+\'
3113+Use \fB+matte\fP to ignore the matte channel (treats it as opaque) and to avoid writing a
3114+matte channel in the output file.
3115+\'
3116+For the compare command, \fB-matte\fP will add an opaque matte
3117+channel to images if they do not already have a matte channel, and
3118+matte will be enabled for both images. Likewise, if \fB+matte\fP is
3119+used, the matte channel is disabled for both images. This makes it
3120+easier to compare images regardless of if they already have a matte
3121+channel.
3122+.TP
3123+.B "-mattecolor \fI<color>"\fP
3124+\fRspecify the color to be used with the \fB-frame\fP option
3125+\'
3126+The color is specified using the format described under the \fB-fill\fP
3127+option.
3128+.TP
3129+.B "-maximum-error \fI<limit>"\fP
3130+\fRspecifies the maximum amount of total image error
3131+\'
3132+Specifies the maximum amount of total image error (based on comparison
3133+using a specified metric) before an error ("image difference exceeds
3134+limit") is reported. The error is reported via a non-zero command
3135+execution return status.
3136+.TP
3137+.B "-median \fI<radius>"\fP
3138+\fRapply a median filter to the image
3139+.TP
3140+.B "-metric \fI<metric>"\fP
3141+\fRcomparison metric (MAE, MSE, PAE, PSNR, RMSE)
3142+.TP
3143+.B "-minify \fI<factor>"\fP
3144+\fRminify the image
3145+\'
3146+The image size is halved using linear interpolation.
3147+.TP
3148+.B "-mode \fI<value>"\fP
3149+\fRmode of operation
3150+\'
3151+The available montage modes are \fBframe\fP to place the images in a
3152+rectangular grid while adding a decorative frame with dropshadow,
3153+\fBunframe\fP to place undecorated images in a rectangular grid, and
3154+\fBconcatenate\fP to pack the images closely together without any
3155+well-defined grid or decoration.
3156+.TP
3157+.B "-modulate \fIbrightness[,saturation[,hue]]"\fP
3158+\fRvary the brightness, saturation, and hue of an image
3159+\'
3160+Specify the percent change in brightness, color saturation, and
3161+hue separated by commas. Default argument values are 100 percent,
3162+resulting in no change. For example, to increase the color brightness
3163+by 20% and decrease the color saturation by 10% and leave the hue
3164+unchanged, use: \fB-modulate 120,90\fP.
3165+\'
3166+Hue is the percentage of absolute rotation from the current
3167+position. For example 50 results in a counter-clockwise rotation of 90
3168+degrees, 150 results in a clockwise rotation of 90 degrees, with 0 and
3169+200 both resulting in a rotation of 180 degrees.
3170+.TP
3171+.B "-monitor"
3172+\fRshow progress indication
3173+\'
3174+A simple command-line progress indication is shown while the command is
3175+running. The process indication shows the operation currently being
3176+performed and the percent completed. Commands using X11 may replace the
3177+command line progress indication with a graphical one once an image has
3178+been displayed.
3179+.TP
3180+.B "-monochrome"
3181+\fRtransform the image to black and white
3182+.TP
3183+.B "-morph \fI<frames>"\fP
3184+\fRmorphs an image sequence
3185+\'
3186+Both the image pixels and size are linearly interpolated to give the appearance
3187+of a meta-morphosis from one image to the next.
3188+\'
3189+The sequence of images
3190+is terminated by the appearance of any option.
3191+If the \fB-morph\fP
3192+option appears after all of the input images, all images are morphed.
3193+.TP
3194+.B "-mosaic"
3195+\fRcreate a mosaic from an image or an image sequence
3196+\'
3197+The \fB-mosaic\fP option provides a flexible way to composite one or
3198+more images onto a solid-color canvas image. It works similar to
3199+\fB-flatten\fP except that a base canvas image is automatically
3200+created with a suitable size given the image size, page dimensions,
3201+and page offsets of images to be composited. The color of the base
3202+canvas image may be set via the \fB-background\fP option. The
3203+default canvas color is 'white', but 'black' or 'transparent' may be
3204+more suitable depending on the composition algorithm requested.
3205+\'
3206+The \fB-compose\fP option may be used to specify the composition
3207+algorithm to use when compositing the subsequent image on the base
3208+canvas.
3209+\'
3210+The \fB-page\fP option can be used to establish the dimensions of the
3211+mosaic and to position the subsequent image within the mosaic. If the
3212+\fB-page\fP argument does not specify width and height, then the
3213+canvas dimensions are evaluated based on the image sizes and
3214+offsets.
3215+\'
3216+The sequence of images is terminated by the appearance of any option.
3217+If the \fB-mosaic\fP option appears after all of the input images,
3218+all images are included in the mosaic.
3219+\'
3220+The following is an example of composing an image based on red, green,
3221+and blue layers extracted from a sequence of images and pasted on the
3222+canvas image at specified offsets:
3223+\'
3224+ gm convert -background black \\
3225+ -compose CopyRed -page +0-100 red.png \\
3226+ -compose CopyGreen -page +0+40 green.png \\
3227+ -compose CopyBlue -page +0+180 blue.png \\
3228+ -mosaic output.png
3229+\'
3230+.TP
3231+.B "-motion-blur \fI<radius>{x<sigma>}{+angle}"\fP
3232+\fRSimulate motion blur
3233+\'
3234+Simulate motion blur by convolving the image with a Gaussian operator of
3235+the given radius and standard deviation (sigma). For reasonable results,
3236+radius should be larger than sigma. If radius is zero, then a suitable
3237+radius is automatically selected based on sigma. The angle specifies the
3238+angle that the object is coming from (side which is blurred).
3239+.TP
3240+.B "-name"
3241+\fRname an image
3242+.TP
3243+.B "-negate"
3244+\fRreplace every pixel with its complementary color
3245+\'
3246+The red, green, and blue intensities of an image are negated.
3247+White becomes black,
3248+yellow becomes blue, etc.
3249+Use \fB+negate\fP
3250+to only negate the grayscale pixels of the image.
3251+.TP
3252+.B "-noise \fI<radius|type>"\fP
3253+\fRadd or reduce noise in an image
3254+\'
3255+The principal function of noise peak elimination filter is to smooth the
3256+objects within an image without losing edge information and without creating
3257+undesired structures. The central idea of the algorithm is to replace a
3258+pixel with its next neighbor in value within a pixel window, if this pixel
3259+has been found to be noise. A pixel is defined as noise if and only if
3260+this pixel is a maximum or minimum within the pixel window.
3261+\'
3262+Use \fBradius\fP to specify the width of the neighborhood.
3263+\'
3264+Use \fB+noise\fP followed by a noise type to add noise to an image.
3265+The noise added modulates the existing image pixels. Choose from these
3266+noise types:
3267+\'
3268+ Uniform
3269+ Gaussian
3270+ Multiplicative
3271+ Impulse
3272+ Laplacian
3273+ Poisson
3274+ Random (uniform distribution)
3275+\'
3276+.TP
3277+.B "-noop"
3278+\fRNOOP (no option)
3279+\'
3280+The \fB-noop\fP option can be used to terminate a group of images
3281+and reset all options to their default values, when no other option is
3282+desired.
3283+.TP
3284+.B "-normalize"
3285+\fRtransform image to span the full range of color values
3286+\'
3287+This is a contrast enhancement technique based on the image histogram.
3288+\'
3289+When computing the contrast enhancement values, the histogram edges
3290+are truncated so that the majority of the image pixels are considered
3291+in the constrast enhancement, and outliers (e.g. random noise or
3292+minute details) are ignored. The default is that 0.1 percent of the
3293+histogram entries are ignored. The percentage of the histogram to
3294+ignore may be specified by using the \fB-set\fP option with the
3295+\fBhistogram-threshold\fP parameter similar to \fB-set
3296+histogram-threshold 0.01\fP to specify 0.01 percent. Use 0 percent
3297+to use the entire histogram, with possibly diminished contrast
3298+enhancement.
3299+.TP
3300+.B "-opaque \fI<color>"\fP
3301+\fRchange this color to the pen color within the image
3302+\'
3303+The color is specified using the format described under the
3304+\fB-fill\fP option. The color is replaced if it is identical to the
3305+target color, or close enough to the target color in a 3D space as
3306+defined by the Euclidean distance specified by \fB-fuzz\fP.
3307+\'
3308+See \fB-fill\fP and \fB-fuzz\fP for more details.
3309+.TP
3310+.B "-operator \fIchannel operator rvalue[%]"\fP
3311+\fRapply a mathematical, bitwise, or value operator to an image channel
3312+\'
3313+Apply a low-level mathematical, bitwise, or value operator to a selected
3314+image channel or all image channels. Operations which result in negative
3315+results are reset to zero, and operations which overflow the available
3316+range are reset to the maximum possible value.
3317+\'
3318+Select a channel from: \fBRed\fP, \fBGreen\fP, \fBBlue\fP,
3319+\fBOpacity\fP, \fBMatte\fP, \fBCyan\fP, \fBMagenta\fP, \fBYellow\fP,
3320+\fBBlack\fP, \fBAll\fP, or \fBGray\fP. \fBAll\fP only modifies the
3321+color channels and does not modify the \fBOpacity\fP channel. Except for
3322+the threshold operators, \fBAll\fP operates on each channel
3323+independently so that operations are on a per-channel basis.
3324+\'
3325+\fBGray\fP treats the color channels as a grayscale intensity and
3326+performs the requested operation on the equivalent pixel intensity so the
3327+result is a gray image.
3328+Select an operator from \fBAdd\fP, \fBAnd\fP, \fBAssign\fP,
3329+\fBDepth\fP, \fBDivide\fP, \fBGamma\fP, \fBNegate\fP,
3330+\fBLShift\fP, \fBLog\fP, \fBMax\fP, \fBMin\fP, \fBMultiply\fP,
3331+\fBOr\fP, \fBPow\fP, \fBRShift\fP, \fBSubtract\fP,
3332+\fBThreshold\fP, \fBThreshold-White\fP,
3333+\fBThreshold-White-Negate\fP, \fBThreshold-Black\fP,
3334+\fBThreshold-Black-Negate\fP, \fBXor\fP, \fBNoise-Gaussian\fP,
3335+\fBNoise-Impulse\fP, \fBNoise-Laplacian\fP,
3336+\fBNoise-Multiplicative\fP, \fBNoise-Poisson\fP,
3337+\fBNoise-Random\fP, and \fBNoise-Uniform\fP.
3338+\'
3339+Rvalue may be any floating point or integer value. Normally rvalue will
3340+be in the range of 0 to MaxRGB, where MaxRGB is the largest quantum value
3341+supported by the GraphicsMagick build (255, 65535, or 4294967295) but
3342+values outside this range are useful for some arithmetic operations.
3343+Arguments to logical or bit-wise operations are rounded to a positive
3344+integral value prior to use. If a percent (\fB%\fP) symbol is appended
3345+to the argument, then the argument has a range of 0 to 100 percent.
3346+\'
3347+The following is a description of the operators:
3348+\'
3349+.in 15
3350+\'
3351+.in 15
3352+.B "Add"
3353+.in 20
3354+ \fR
3355+.in 20
3356+Result is rvalue added to channel value.
3357+\'
3358+.in 15
3359+.in 15
3360+.B "And"
3361+.in 20
3362+ \fR
3363+.in 20
3364+Result is the logical AND of rvalue with channel value.
3365+\'
3366+.in 15
3367+.in 15
3368+.B "Assign"
3369+.in 20
3370+ \fR
3371+.in 20
3372+Result is rvalue.
3373+\'
3374+.in 15
3375+.in 15
3376+.B "Depth"
3377+.in 20
3378+ \fR
3379+.in 20
3380+Result is channel value adjusted so that it may be (approximately)
3381+stored in the specified number of bits without additional loss.
3382+\'
3383+.in 15
3384+.in 15
3385+.B "Divide"
3386+.in 20
3387+ \fR
3388+.in 20
3389+Result is channel value divided by rvalue.
3390+\'
3391+.in 15
3392+.in 15
3393+.B "Gamma"
3394+.in 20
3395+ \fR
3396+.in 20
3397+Result is channel value gamma adjusted by rvalue.
3398+\'
3399+.in 15
3400+.in 15
3401+.B "LShift"
3402+.in 20
3403+ \fR
3404+.in 20
3405+Result is channel value bitwise left shifted by rvalue bits.
3406+\'
3407+.in 15
3408+.in 15
3409+.B "Log"
3410+.in 20
3411+ \fR
3412+.in 20
3413+Result is computed as log(value*rvalue+1)/log(rvalue+1).
3414+\'
3415+.in 15
3416+.in 15
3417+.B "Max"
3418+.in 20
3419+ \fR
3420+.in 20
3421+Result is assigned to rvalue if rvalue is greater than value.
3422+\'
3423+.in 15
3424+.in 15
3425+.B "Min"
3426+.in 20
3427+ \fR
3428+.in 20
3429+Result is assigned to rvalue if rvalue is less than value.
3430+\'
3431+.in 15
3432+.in 15
3433+.B "Multiply"
3434+.in 20
3435+ \fR
3436+.in 20
3437+Result is channel value multiplied by rvalue.
3438+\'
3439+.in 15
3440+.in 15
3441+.B "Negate"
3442+.in 20
3443+ \fR
3444+.in 20
3445+Result is inverse of channel value (like a film negative). An rvalue
3446+must be supplied but is currently not used. Inverting the image twice
3447+results in the original image.
3448+\'
3449+.in 15
3450+.in 15
3451+.B "Or"
3452+.in 20
3453+ \fR
3454+.in 20
3455+Result is the logical OR of rvalue with channel value.
3456+\'
3457+.in 15
3458+.in 15
3459+.B "Pow"
3460+.in 20
3461+ \fR
3462+.in 20
3463+Result is computed as pow(value,rvalue). Similar to Gamma except that
3464+rvalue is not inverted.
3465+\'
3466+.in 15
3467+.in 15
3468+.B "RShift"
3469+.in 20
3470+ \fR
3471+.in 20
3472+Result is channel value bitwise right shifted by rvalue bits.
3473+\'
3474+.in 15
3475+.in 15
3476+.B "Subtract"
3477+.in 20
3478+ \fR
3479+.in 20
3480+Result is channel value minus rvalue.
3481+\'
3482+.in 15
3483+.in 15
3484+.B "Threshold"
3485+.in 20
3486+ \fR
3487+.in 20
3488+Result is maximum (white) if channel value is greater than rvalue,
3489+or minimum (black) if it is less than or equal to rvalue. If \fBall\fP
3490+channels are specified, then thresholding is done based on computed pixel
3491+intensity.
3492+\'
3493+.in 15
3494+.in 15
3495+.B "Threshold-white"
3496+.in 20
3497+ \fR
3498+.in 20
3499+Result is maximum (white) if channel value is greater than rvalue and
3500+is unchanged if it is less than or equal to rvalue. This can be used to
3501+remove apparent noise from the bright parts of an image. If \fBall\fP
3502+channels are specified, then thresholding is done based on computed pixel
3503+intensity.
3504+\'
3505+.in 15
3506+.in 15
3507+.B "Threshold-White-Negate"
3508+.in 20
3509+ \fR
3510+.in 20
3511+Result is set to black if channel value is greater than
3512+rvalue and is unchanged if it is less than or equal to rvalue. If
3513+\fBall\fP channels are specified, then thresholding is done based on
3514+computed pixel intensity.
3515+\'
3516+.in 15
3517+.in 15
3518+.B "Threshold-black"
3519+.in 20
3520+ \fR
3521+.in 20
3522+Result is minimum (black) if channel value is less than than rvalue
3523+and is unchanged if it is greater than or equal to rvalue. This can be
3524+used to remove apparent noise from the dark parts of an image. If
3525+\fBall\fP channels are specified, then thresholding is done based on
3526+computed pixel intensity.
3527+\'
3528+.in 15
3529+.in 15
3530+.B "Threshold-Black-Negate"
3531+.in 20
3532+ \fR
3533+.in 20
3534+Result is set to white if channel value is less than than
3535+rvalue and is unchanged if it is greater than or equal to rvalue. If
3536+\fBall\fP channels are specified, then thresholding is done based on
3537+computed pixel intensity.
3538+\'
3539+.in 15
3540+.in 15
3541+.B "Xor"
3542+.in 20
3543+ \fR
3544+.in 20
3545+Result is the logical XOR of rvalue with channel value. An
3546+interesting property of XOR is that performing the same operation twice
3547+results in the original value.
3548+\'
3549+.in 15
3550+.in 15
3551+.B "Noise-Gaussian"
3552+.in 20
3553+ \fR
3554+.in 20
3555+Result is the current channel value modulated with gaussian noise
3556+according to the intensity specified by rvalue.
3557+\'
3558+.in 15
3559+.in 15
3560+.B "Noise-Impulse"
3561+.in 20
3562+ \fR
3563+.in 20
3564+Result is the current channel value modulated with impulse noise
3565+according to the intensity specified by rvalue.
3566+\'
3567+.in 15
3568+.in 15
3569+.B "Noise-Laplacian"
3570+.in 20
3571+ \fR
3572+.in 20
3573+Result is the current channel value modulated with laplacian noise
3574+according to the intensity specified by rvalue.
3575+\'
3576+.in 15
3577+.in 15
3578+.B "Noise-Multiplicative"
3579+.in 20
3580+ \fR
3581+.in 20
3582+Result is the current channel value modulated with multiplicative
3583+gaussian noise according to the intensity specified by rvalue.
3584+\'
3585+.in 15
3586+.in 15
3587+.B "Noise-Poisson"
3588+.in 20
3589+ \fR
3590+.in 20
3591+Result is the current channel value modulated with poisson noise
3592+according to the intensity specified by rvalue.
3593+\'
3594+.in 15
3595+.in 15
3596+.B "Noise-Random"
3597+.in 20
3598+ \fR
3599+.in 20
3600+Result is the current channel value modulated with random (uniform
3601+distribution) noise according to the intensity specified by rvalue.
3602+The initial noise intensity (rvalue=1.0) is the range of one pixel
3603+quantum span.
3604+\'
3605+.in 15
3606+.in 15
3607+.B "Noise-Uniform"
3608+.in 20
3609+ \fR
3610+.in 20
3611+Result is the channel value with uniform noise applied according to
3612+the intensity specified by rvalue.
3613+\'
3614+.in 15
3615+\'
3616+\'
3617+\'
3618+As an example, the \fBAssign\fP operator assigns a fixed value to a
3619+channel. For example, this command sets the red channel to the mid-range
3620+value:
3621+\'
3622+ gm convert in.bmp -operator red assign "50%" out.bmp
3623+\'
3624+\'
3625+The following applies 50% thresholding to the image and returns a gray
3626+image:
3627+\'
3628+ gm convert in.bmp -operator gray threshold "50%" out.bmp
3629+\'
3630+.TP
3631+.B "-ordered-dither \fI<channeltype> <NxN>"\fP
3632+\fRordered dither the image
3633+\'
3634+The channel or channels specified in the \fBchanneltype\fP argument are
3635+reduced to binary, using an ordered dither method. The choices for
3636+\fBchanneltype\fP are \fBAll\fP, \fBIntensity\fP, \fBRed\fP,
3637+\fBGreen\fP, \fBBlue\fP, \fBCyan\fP, \fBMagenta\fP, \fBYellow\fP,
3638+\fBBlack\fP, and \fBOpacity\fP
3639+\'
3640+When \fBchanneltype\fP is "All", the color samples are dithered into
3641+a gray level and then that gray level is stored in the three color
3642+channels. Separately, the opacity channel is dithered into a bilevel
3643+opacity value which is stored in the opacity channel.
3644+\'
3645+When \fBchanneltype\fP is "Intensity", only the color samples are
3646+dithered. When \fBchanneltype\fP is "opacity" or "matte", only the
3647+opacity channel is dithered. When a color channel is specified, only that
3648+channel is dithered.
3649+\'
3650+The choices for N are 2 through 7. The image is divided into
3651+NxN pixel tiles. In each tile, some or all pixels are turned to
3652+white depending on their intensity. For each N, (N**2)+1 levels
3653+of gray can be represented. For N == 2, 3, or 4, the pixels
3654+are turned to white in an order that maximizes dispersion (i.e.,
3655+reduces granularity), while
3656+for N == 5, 6, and 7, they are turned to white in an order that
3657+creates a roughly circular black blob in the middle of each tile.
3658+An attractive "half-tone" looking image can be obtained by first
3659+rotating the image 45 degrees, performing a 5x5 ordered-dither
3660+operation, then rotating it back to the original orientation and
3661+cropping to the original image dimensions. If the original image
3662+is gamma-encoded, it is adviseable to convert it to linear intensity
3663+first, e.g., with the "-gamma 0.45455" option.
3664+.TP
3665+.B "-output-directory \fI<directory>"\fP
3666+\fRoutput files to directory
3667+\'
3668+Use -output-directory to specify a directory under which to write the
3669+output files. Normally mogrify overwrites the input files, but with
3670+this option the output files may be written to a different directory
3671+tree so that the input files are preserved. The algorithm used
3672+preserves all of the input path specification in the output path so
3673+that the user-specified input path (including any sub-directory part)
3674+is appended to the output path. If the input file lacks an extension,
3675+then a suitable extension is automatically added to the output file.
3676+The user is responsible for creating the output directory specified as
3677+an argument, but subdirectories will be created as needed if the
3678+\fB-create-directories\fP option is supplied. This option may be
3679+used to apply transformations on files from one directory and write
3680+the transformed files to a different directory. In conjunction with
3681+\fB-create-directories\fP, this option is designed to support
3682+transforming whole directory trees of files provided that the relative
3683+path of the input file is included as part the list of filenames.
3684+.TP
3685+.B "-orient \fI<orientation>"\fP
3686+\fRSet the image orientation attribute
3687+\'
3688+Sets the image orientation attribute. The image orientation attribute
3689+is compatible with the TIFF orientation tag (and the EXIF orientation
3690+tag). Accepted values are \fBundefined\fP, \fBTopLeft\fP,
3691+\fBTopRight\fP, \fBBottomRight\fP, \fBBottomLeft\fP,
3692+\fBLeftTop\fP, \fBRightTop\fP, \fBRightBottom\fP,
3693+\fBLeftBottom\fP, and hyphenated versions thereof
3694+(e.g. \fBleft-bottom\fP). Please note that GraphicsMagick does not
3695+include an EXIF editor so if an EXIF profile is written to the output
3696+image, the value in the EXIF profile might not match the image. It is
3697+possible for an image file to indicate its orientation in several
3698+different ways simultaneously.
3699+.TP
3700+.B "-page \fI<width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}"\fP
3701+\fRsize and location of an image canvas
3702+\'
3703+Use this option to specify the dimensions of the
3704+\fIPostScript\fP page
3705+in dots per inch or a TEXT page in pixels. The choices for a PostScript
3706+page are:
3707+\'
3708+ 11x17 792 1224
3709+ Ledger 1224 792
3710+ Legal 612 1008
3711+ Letter 612 792
3712+ LetterSmall 612 792
3713+ ArchE 2592 3456
3714+ ArchD 1728 2592
3715+ ArchC 1296 1728
3716+ ArchB 864 1296
3717+ ArchA 648 864
3718+ A0 2380 3368
3719+ A1 1684 2380
3720+ A2 1190 1684
3721+ A3 842 1190
3722+ A4 595 842
3723+ A4Small 595 842
3724+ A5 421 595
3725+ A6 297 421
3726+ A7 210 297
3727+ A8 148 210
3728+ A9 105 148
3729+ A10 74 105
3730+ B0 2836 4008
3731+ B1 2004 2836
3732+ B2 1418 2004
3733+ B3 1002 1418
3734+ B4 709 1002
3735+ B5 501 709
3736+ C0 2600 3677
3737+ C1 1837 2600
3738+ C2 1298 1837
3739+ C3 918 1298
3740+ C4 649 918
3741+ C5 459 649
3742+ C6 323 459
3743+ Flsa 612 936
3744+ Flse 612 936
3745+ HalfLetter 396 612
3746+\'
3747+\'
3748+For convenience you can specify the page size by media (e.g. A4, Ledger,
3749+etc.). Otherwise, \fB-page\fP behaves much like
3750+\fB-geometry\fP (e.g. -page letter+43+43>).
3751+\'
3752+This option is also used to place subimages when writing to a multi-image
3753+format that supports offsets, such as GIF89 and MNG. When used for this
3754+purpose the offsets are always measured from the
3755+top left corner of the canvas and are not affected by the \fB-gravity\fP
3756+option.
3757+To position a GIF or MNG image, use \fB-page\fP\fI{+-}<x>{+-}<y>\fP
3758+(e.g. -page +100+200). When writing to a MNG file, a \fB-page\fP
3759+option appearing ahead of the first image in the sequence with nonzero
3760+width and height defines the width and height values that are written in
3761+the \fBMHDR\fP chunk. Otherwise, the MNG width and height are computed
3762+from the bounding box that contains all images in the sequence. When
3763+writing a GIF89 file, only the bounding box method is used to determine its
3764+dimensions.
3765+\'
3766+For a PostScript page, the image is sized as in \fB-geometry\fP and positioned
3767+relative to the lower left hand corner of the page by
3768+{+-}<\fBx\fP\fIoffset\fP>{+-}<\fBy\fP
3769+\fIoffset>\fP. Use
3770+-page 612x792>, for example, to center the
3771+image within the page. If the image size exceeds the PostScript page, it
3772+is reduced to fit the page.
3773+The default gravity for the \fB-page\fP
3774+option is \fINorthWest\fP, i.e., positive \fBx\fP and
3775+\fBy\fP \fIoffset\fP are measured rightward and downward from the top
3776+left corner of the page, unless the \fB-gravity\fP option is present with
3777+a value other than \fINorthWest\fP.
3778+\'
3779+The default page dimensions for a TEXT image is 612x792.
3780+\'
3781+This option is used in concert with \fB-density\fP.
3782+\'
3783+Use \fB+page\fP to remove the page settings for an image.
3784+.TP
3785+.B "-paint \fI<radius>"\fP
3786+\fRsimulate an oil painting
3787+\'
3788+Each pixel is replaced by the most frequent color in a circular neighborhood
3789+whose width is specified with \fIradius\fP.
3790+.TP
3791+.B "-pause \fI<seconds>"\fP
3792+\fRpause between animation loops [animate]
3793+\'
3794+Pause for the specified number of seconds before repeating the
3795+animation.
3796+.TP
3797+.B "-pause \fI<seconds>"\fP
3798+\fRpause between snapshots [import]
3799+\'
3800+Pause for the specified number of seconds before taking the next
3801+snapshot.
3802+.TP
3803+.B "-pen \fI<color>"\fP
3804+\fR(This option has been replaced by the -fill option)
3805+.TP
3806+.B "-ping"
3807+\fRefficiently determine image characteristics
3808+\'
3809+Use this option to disable reading the image pixels so that image
3810+characteristics such as the image dimensions may be obtained very
3811+quickly. For identify, use +ping to force reading the image pixels so
3812+that the pixel read rate may be included in the displayed information.
3813+.TP
3814+.B "-pointsize \fI<value>"\fP
3815+\fRpointsize of the PostScript, X11, or TrueType font
3816+.TP
3817+.B "-preview \fI<type>"\fP
3818+\fRimage preview type
3819+\'
3820+Use this option to affect the preview operation of an image (e.g.
3821+convert file.png -preview Gamma Preview:gamma.png). Choose
3822+from these previews:
3823+\'
3824+ Rotate
3825+ Shear
3826+ Roll
3827+ Hue
3828+ Saturation
3829+ Brightness
3830+ Gamma
3831+ Spiff
3832+ Dull
3833+ Grayscale
3834+ Quantize
3835+ Despeckle
3836+ ReduceNoise
3837+ AddNoise
3838+ Sharpen
3839+ Blur
3840+ Threshold
3841+ EdgeDetect
3842+ Spread
3843+ Shade
3844+ Raise
3845+ Segment
3846+ Solarize
3847+ Swirl
3848+ Implode
3849+ Wave
3850+ OilPaint
3851+ CharcoalDrawing
3852+ JPEG
3853+\'
3854+\'
3855+The default preview is \fBJPEG\fP.
3856+.TP
3857+.B "-process \fI<command>"\fP
3858+\fRprocess a sequence of images using a process module
3859+\'
3860+The command argument has the form \fBmodule=arg1,arg2,arg3,...,argN\fP
3861+where \fBmodule\fP is the name of the module to invoke (e.g. "Analyze")
3862+and arg1,arg2,arg3,...,argN are an arbitrary number of arguments to
3863+pass to the process module.
3864+The sequence of images
3865+is terminated by the appearance of any option.
3866+\'
3867+If the \fB-process\fP
3868+option appears after all of the input images, all images are processed.
3869+\'
3870+For example:
3871+\'
3872+ gm convert logo: -process Analyze= \\
3873+ -format "%[BrightnessMean],%[BrightnessStddev]" info:-
3874+ 51952,23294
3875+\'
3876+.TP
3877+.B "-profile \fI<filename>"\fP
3878+\fRadd ICM, IPTC, or generic profile to image
3879+\'
3880+-profile filename adds an ICM (ICC color management), IPTC
3881+(newswire information), or a generic (including Exif) profile to the image
3882+.
3883+\'
3884+Use +profile icm, +profile iptc, or
3885++profile profile_name to remove the respective profile.
3886+Multiple profiles may be listed, separated by commas. Profiles may be
3887+excluded from subsequent listed matches by preceding their name with
3888+an exclamation point. For example, +profile '!icm,*' strips
3889+all profiles except for the ICM profile. Use identify
3890+-verbose to find out what profiles are in the image file. Use
3891++profile "*" to remove all profiles.
3892+Writing the image to a format that does not support profiles will
3893+of course also cause all profiles to be removed. The JPEG and PNG
3894+formats will store any profiles that have been read and not removed.
3895+In JPEG they are stored in APP1 markers, and in PNG they are stored
3896+as hex-coded binary in compressed zTXt chunks, except for the iCC
3897+chunk which is stored in the iCCP chunk.
3898+\'
3899+To extract a profile, the \fB-profile\fP option is not used. Instead,
3900+simply write the file to an image
3901+format such as \fIAPP1, 8BIM, ICM,\fP or \fIIPTC\fP.
3902+\'
3903+For example, to extract the Exif data (which is stored in JPEG files
3904+in the \fIAPP1\fP profile), use
3905+\'
3906+\'
3907+ gm convert cockatoo.jpg exifdata.app1
3908+\'
3909+Note that GraphicsMagick does not attempt to update any profile to
3910+reflect changes made to the image, e.g., rotation from portrait to landscape
3911+orientation, so it is possible that the preserved profile may contain
3912+invalid data.
3913+.TP
3914+.B "-preserve-timestamp"
3915+\fRpreserve the original timestamps of the file
3916+\'
3917+Use this option to preserve the original modification and access
3918+timestamps of the file, even if it has been modified.
3919+.TP
3920+.B "+progress"
3921+\fRdisable progress monitor and busy cursor
3922+\'
3923+By default, when an image is displayed, a progress monitor bar is shown
3924+in the top left corner of an existing image display window, and the
3925+current cursor is replaced with an hourglass cursor. Use \fB+progress\fP
3926+to disable the progress monitor and busy cursor during display operations.
3927+While the progress monitor is disabled for all operations, the busy
3928+cursor continues to be enabled for non-display operations such as image
3929+processing. This option is useful for non-interactive display operations,
3930+or when a "clean" look is desired.
3931+.TP
3932+.B "-quality \fI<value>"\fP
3933+\fRJPEG/MIFF/PNG/TIFF compression level
3934+ For the JPEG and MPEG image formats, quality is 0 (lowest image
3935+quality and highest compression) to 100 (best quality but least
3936+effective compression). The default quality is 75. Use the
3937+\fB-sampling-factor\fP option to specify the factors for chroma
3938+downsampling. To use the same quality value as that found by the JPEG
3939+decoder, use the -define jpeg:preserve-settings flag.
3940+\'
3941+For the MIFF image format, and the TIFF format while using ZIP
3942+compression, quality/10 is the zlib compression level, which is 0 (worst
3943+but fastest compression) to 9 (best but slowest). It has no effect on the
3944+image appearance, since the compression is always lossless.
3945+\'
3946+For the JPEG-2000 image format, quality is mapped using a non-linear
3947+equation to the compression ratio required by the Jasper library. This
3948+non-linear equation is intended to loosely approximate the quality
3949+provided by the JPEG v1 format. The default quality value 75 results in
3950+a request for 16:1 compression. The quality value 100 results in
3951+a request for non-lossy compression.
3952+\'
3953+For the MNG and PNG image formats, the quality value sets the zlib compression
3954+level (quality / 10) and filter-type (quality % 10). Compression levels
3955+range from 0 (fastest compression) to 100 (best but slowest). For compression
3956+level 0, the Huffman-only strategy is used, which is fastest but not
3957+necessarily the worst compression.
3958+\'
3959+If
3960+filter-type is 4 or less, the specified filter-type is used for all scanlines:
3961+\'
3962+ 0: none
3963+ 1: sub
3964+ 2: up
3965+ 3: average
3966+ 4: Paeth
3967+\'
3968+\'
3969+If filter-type is 5, adaptive filtering is used when quality is greater
3970+than 50 and the image does not have a color map, otherwise no filtering
3971+is used.
3972+\'
3973+If filter-type is 6, adaptive filtering
3974+with \fIminimum-sum-of-absolute-values\fP
3975+is used.
3976+\'
3977+Only if the output is MNG, if filter-type is 7, the LOCO color transformation
3978+and adaptive filtering with \fIminimum-sum-of-absolute-values\fP
3979+are used.
3980+\'
3981+The default is quality is 75, which means nearly the best compression with
3982+adaptive filtering. The quality setting has no effect on the appearance
3983+of PNG and MNG images, since the compression is always lossless.
3984+\'
3985+For further information, see the PNG
3986+specification.
3987+\'
3988+When writing a JNG image with transparency, two quality values are required,
3989+one for the main image and one for the grayscale image that conveys the
3990+opacity channel. These are written as a single integer equal to the main
3991+image quality plus 1000 times the opacity quality. For example, if you
3992+want to use quality 75 for the main image and quality 90 to compress
3993+the opacity data, use -quality 90075.
3994+\'
3995+For the PNM family of formats (PNM, PGM, and PPM) specify a quality
3996+factor of zero in order to obtain the ASCII variant of the format. Note
3997+that -compress \fInone\fP used to be used to trigger ASCII output but
3998+provided the opposite result of what was expected as compared with other
3999+formats.
4000+\'
4001+For the TIFF format, the JPEG, WebP, Zip, and Zstd compression
4002+algorithms are influenced by the quality value. JPEG and WebP provide
4003+lossy compression so higher quality produces a larger file with less
4004+degradation. The Zip and Zstd compression algorithms (and WebP in
4005+lossless mode) are lossless and for these algorithms a higher
4006+'quality' means to work harder to produce a smaller file, but with no
4007+difference in image quality.
4008+.TP
4009+.B "-raise \fI<width>x<height>"\fP
4010+\fRlighten or darken image edges
4011+\'
4012+This will create a 3-D effect. See \fB-geometry\fP for details
4013+details about the geometry specification. Offsets are not used.
4014+\'
4015+Use \fB-raise\fP to create a raised effect, otherwise use \fB+raise\fP.
4016+.TP
4017+.B "-random-threshold \fI<channeltype> <LOWxHIGH>"\fP
4018+\fRrandom threshold the image
4019+\'
4020+The channel or channels specified in the <channeltype> argument are
4021+reduced to binary, using an random-threshold method. The choices for
4022+\fBchanneltype\fP are \fBAll\fP, \fBIntensity\fP, \fBRed\fP,
4023+\fBGreen\fP, \fBBlue\fP, \fBCyan\fP, \fBMagenta\fP, \fBYellow\fP,
4024+\fBBlack\fP, and \fBOpacity\fP
4025+\'
4026+When \fBchanneltype\fP is "All", the color samples are thresholded into
4027+a graylevel and then that gray level is stored in the three color
4028+channels. Separately, the opacity channel is thresholded into a bilevel
4029+opacity value which is stored in the opacity channel. For each pixel, a
4030+new random number is used to establish the threshold to be used. The
4031+threshold never exceeds the specified maximum (HIGH) and is never less
4032+than the specified minimum (LOW).
4033+\'
4034+When \fBchanneltype\fP is "intensity", only the color samples are
4035+thresholded. When \fBchanneltype\fP is "opacity" or "matte", only the
4036+opacity channel is thresholded. The other named channels only threshold
4037+the associated channel.
4038+.TP
4039+.B "-recolor \fI<matrix>"\fP
4040+\fRapply a color translation matrix to image channels
4041+\'
4042+A user supplied color translation matrix (expressed as a text string)
4043+is used to translate/blend the image channels based on weightings in a
4044+supplied matrix which may be of order 3 (color channels only), 4
4045+(color channels plus opacity), or 5 (color channels plus opacity and
4046+offset). Values in the columns of the matrix (red, green, blue,
4047+opacity) are used as multipliers with the existing channel values and
4048+added together according to the rows of the matrix. Matrix values are
4049+floating point and may be negative. The offset column (column 5) is
4050+purely additive and is scaled such that 0.0 to 1.0 represents the
4051+maximum quantum range (but values are not limited to this range). The
4052+math for the color translation matrix is similar to that used by Adobe
4053+Flash except that the offset is scaled to 1.0 (divide Flash offset by
4054+255 for use with GraphicsMagick) so that the results are independent
4055+of quantum depth.
4056+\'
4057+An \fBidentity\fP matrix exists for each matrix order which
4058+results in no change to the image. The translation matrix should be
4059+based on an alteration of the identity matrix.
4060+\'
4061+Identity matrix of order 3
4062+\'
4063+ 1 0 0
4064+ 0 1 0
4065+ 0 0 1
4066+\'
4067+\'
4068+which may be formatted into a convenient matrix argument similar to
4069+(comma is treated as white space):
4070+\'
4071+ -recolor "1 0 0, 0 1 0, 0 0 1"
4072+\'
4073+\'
4074+Identity matrix of order 4
4075+\'
4076+ 1 0 0 0
4077+ 0 1 0 0
4078+ 0 0 1 0
4079+ 0 0 0 1
4080+\'
4081+\'
4082+Identity matrix of order 5. The last row is required to exist
4083+for the purpose of parsing, but is otherwise not used.
4084+\'
4085+ 1 0 0 0 0
4086+ 0 1 0 0 0
4087+ 0 0 1 0 0
4088+ 0 0 0 1 0
4089+ 0 0 0 0 1
4090+\'
4091+\'
4092+As an example, an image wrongly in BGR channel order may be converted
4093+to RGB using this matrix (blue->red, red->blue):
4094+\'
4095+ 0 0 1
4096+ 0 1 0
4097+ 1 0 0
4098+\'
4099+\'
4100+and an RGB image using standard Rec.709 primaries may be converted
4101+to grayscale using this matrix of standard weighting factors:
4102+\'
4103+ 0.2126 0.7152 0.0722
4104+ 0.2126 0.7152 0.0722
4105+ 0.2126 0.7152 0.0722
4106+\'
4107+\'
4108+and contrast may be reduced by scaling down by 80% and adding a 10%
4109+offset:
4110+\'
4111+ 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1
4112+ 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.1
4113+ 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.1
4114+ 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.1
4115+ 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0
4116+\'
4117+.TP
4118+.B "-red-primary \fI<x>,<y>"\fP
4119+\fRred chromaticity primary point
4120+.TP
4121+.B "-region \fI<width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>"\fP
4122+\fRapply options to a portion of the image
4123+\'
4124+The \fIx\fP and \fIy\fP offsets are treated in the same manner as in \fB-crop\fP.
4125+.TP
4126+.B "-remote"
4127+\fRperform a X11 remote operation
4128+\'
4129+The \fB-remote\fP command sends a command to a "gm display" or "gm
4130+animate" which is already running. The only command recognized at this
4131+time is the name of an image file to load. This capability is very
4132+useful to load new images without needing to restart GraphicsMagick
4133+(e.g. for a slide-show or to use GraphicsMagick as the display engine
4134+for a different GUI). Also see the \fB+progress\fP option for a way
4135+to disable progress indication for a clean look while loading new images.
4136+.TP
4137+.B "-render"
4138+\fRrender vector operations
4139+\'
4140+Use \fB+render\fP to turn off rendering vector operations. This is
4141+useful when saving the result to vector formats such as MVG or SVG.
4142+.TP
4143+.B "-repage \fI <width>x<height>+xoff+yoff[!]"\fP
4144+\fRAdjust image page offsets
4145+\'
4146+Adjust the current image page canvas and position based on a relative
4147+page specification. This option may be used to change the location of
4148+a subframe (e.g. part of an animation) prior to composition. If the
4149+geometry specification is absolute (includes a '!'), then the offset
4150+adjustment is absolute and there is no adjustment to page width and
4151+height, otherwise the page width and height values are also adjusted
4152+based on the current image dimensions. Use \fB+repage\fP to set the
4153+image page offsets to default.
4154+.TP
4155+.B "-resample \fI<horizontal>x<vertical>"\fP
4156+\fRResample image to specified horizontal and vertical resolution
4157+\'
4158+Resize the image so that its rendered size remains the same as the
4159+original at the specified target resolution. Either the current image
4160+resolution units or the previously set with \fB-units\fP are used to
4161+interpret the argument. For example, if a 300 DPI image renders at 3
4162+inches by 2 inches on a 300 DPI device, when the image has been
4163+resampled to 72 DPI, it will render at 3 inches by 2 inches on a 72
4164+DPI device. Note that only a small number of image formats
4165+(e.g. JPEG, PNG, and TIFF) are capable of storing the image
4166+resolution. For formats which do not support an image resolution, the
4167+original resolution of the image must be specified via \fB-density\fP
4168+on the command line prior to specifying the resample resolution.
4169+\'
4170+Note that Photoshop stores and obtains image resolution from a
4171+proprietary embedded profile. If this profile exists in the image,
4172+then Photoshop will continue to treat the image using its former
4173+resolution, ignoring the image resolution specified in the standard
4174+file header.
4175+\'
4176+Some image formats (e.g. PNG) require use of metric or english units
4177+so even if the original image used a particular unit system, if it is
4178+saved to a different format prior to resampling, then it may be
4179+necessary to specify the desired resolution units using \fB-units\fP
4180+since the original units may have been lost. In other words, do not
4181+assume that the resolution units are restored if the image has been
4182+saved to a file.
4183+.TP
4184+.B "-resize \fI<width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}"\fP
4185+\fRresize an image
4186+\'
4187+This is an alias for the \fB-geometry\fP option and it behaves in the
4188+same manner. If the \fB-filter\fP option precedes the \fB-resize\fP
4189+option, the specified filter is used.
4190+\'
4191+There are some exceptions:
4192+\'
4193+When used as a \fIcomposite\fP option, \fB-resize\fP conveys the
4194+preferred size of the output image, while \fB-geometry\fP conveys the
4195+size and placement of the \fIcomposite image\fP within the main
4196+image.
4197+\'
4198+When used as a \fImontage\fP option, \fB-resize\fP conveys the preferred
4199+size of the montage, while \fB-geometry\fP conveys
4200+information about the tiles.
4201+.TP
4202+.B "-roll \fI{+-}<x>{+-}<y>"\fP
4203+\fRroll an image vertically or horizontally
4204+\'
4205+See \fB-geometry\fP for details the geometry specification. The
4206+\fIx\fP and \fIy\fP offsets are not affected by the \fB-gravity\fP
4207+option.
4208+\'
4209+A negative \fIx\fP offset rolls the image left-to-right. A negative
4210+\fIy\fP offset rolls the image top-to-bottom.
4211+.TP
4212+.B "-rotate \fI<degrees>{<}{>}"\fP
4213+\fRrotate the image
4214+\'
4215+Positive angles rotate the image in a clockwise direction while
4216+negative angles rotate counter-clockwise.
4217+\'
4218+Use > to rotate the image only if its width exceeds the
4219+height. < rotates the image \fIonly\fP if its width is less
4220+than the height. For example, if you specify -rotate "-90>"
4221+and the image size is 480x640, the image is not rotated. However, if
4222+the image is 640x480, it is rotated by -90 degrees. If you use
4223+> or <, enclose it in quotation marks to prevent it
4224+from being misinterpreted as a file redirection.
4225+\'
4226+Empty triangles left over from rotating the image are filled with the
4227+color defined as \fBbackground\fP (class \fBbackgroundColor\fP).
4228+The color is specified using the format described under the
4229+\fB-fill\fP option.
4230+.TP
4231+.B "-sample \fI<geometry>"\fP
4232+\fRscale image using pixel sampling
4233+\'
4234+See \fB-geometry\fP for details about
4235+the geometry specification.
4236+\fB-sample\fP ignores the \fB-filter\fP selection if the \fB-filter\fP option
4237+is present. Offsets, if present in the geometry string, are ignored, and
4238+the \fB-gravity\fP option has no effect.
4239+.TP
4240+.B "-sampling-factor \fI<horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>"\fP
4241+\fRchroma subsampling factors
4242+\'
4243+This option specifies the sampling factors to be used by the DPX, JPEG,
4244+MPEG, or YUV encoders for chroma downsampling. The sampling factor must
4245+be specified while reading the raw YUV format since it is not preserved
4246+in the file header.
4247+Industry-standard video subsampling notation such as "4:2:2" may also
4248+be used to specify the sampling factors. "4:2:2" is equivalent to a
4249+specification of "2x1"
4250+\'
4251+The JPEG decoder obtains the original sampling factors (and quality
4252+settings) when a JPEG file is read. To re-use the original sampling
4253+factors (and quality setting) when JPEG is output, use the -define
4254+jpeg:preserve-settings flag.
4255+.TP
4256+.B "-scale \fI<geometry>"\fP
4257+\fRscale the image.
4258+\'
4259+See \fB-geometry\fP for details about
4260+the geometry specification. \fB-scale\fP uses a simpler, faster algorithm,
4261+and it ignores the \fB-filter\fP selection if the \fB-filter\fP option
4262+is present. Offsets, if present in the geometry string, are ignored, and
4263+the \fB-gravity\fP option has no effect.
4264+.TP
4265+.B "-scene \fI<value>"\fP
4266+\fRset scene number
4267+\'
4268+This option sets the scene number of an image or the first image in
4269+an image sequence.
4270+.TP
4271+.B "-scenes \fI<value-value>"\fP
4272+\fRrange of image scene numbers to read
4273+\'
4274+Each image in the range is read
4275+with the filename followed by a period (\fB.\fP) and the decimal scene
4276+number. You
4277+can change this behavior by embedding a \fB%d, %0Nd, %o, %0No, %x, or %0Nx
4278+printf\fP format specification in the file name. For example,
4279+\'
4280+ gm montage -scenes 5-7 image.miff montage.miff
4281+\'
4282+\'
4283+makes a montage of files image.miff.5, image.miff.6, and image.miff.7, and
4284+\'
4285+ gm animate -scenes 0-12 image%02d.miff
4286+\'
4287+\'
4288+animates files image00.miff, image01.miff, through image12.miff.
4289+.TP
4290+.B "-screen"
4291+\fRspecify the screen to capture
4292+\'
4293+This option indicates that the GetImage request used to obtain the image
4294+should be done on the root window, rather than directly on the specified
4295+window. In this way, you can obtain pieces of other windows that overlap
4296+the specified window, and more importantly, you can capture menus or other
4297+popups that are independent windows but appear over the specified window.
4298+.TP
4299+.B "-set \fI<attribute> <value>"\fP
4300+\fRset an image attribute
4301+\'
4302+Set a named image attribute. The attribute is set on the current
4303+(previously specified on command line) image.
4304+.TP
4305+.B "+set \fI<attribute>"\fP
4306+\fRunset an image attribute
4307+\'
4308+Unset a named image attribute. The attribute is removed from the current
4309+(previously specified on command line) image.
4310+.TP
4311+.B "-segment \fI<cluster threshold>x<smoothing threshold>"\fP
4312+\fRsegment an image
4313+\'
4314+Segment an image by analyzing the histograms of the color components and
4315+identifying units that are homogeneous with the fuzzy c-means technique.
4316+\'
4317+Segmentation is a very useful fast and and approximate color quantization
4318+algorithm for scanned printed pages or scanned cartoons. It may also be
4319+used as a special effect. Specify \fIcluster threshold\fP as the minimum
4320+percentage of total pixels in a cluster before it is considered valid.
4321+For huge images containing small detail, this may need to be a tiny
4322+fraction of a percent (e.g. 0.015) so that important detail is not lost.
4323+\fISmoothing threshold\fP eliminates noise in the second derivative of
4324+the histogram. As the value is increased, you can expect a smoother
4325+second derivative. The default is 1.5. Add the \fI-verbose\fP option to
4326+see a dump of cluster statistics given the parameters used. The
4327+statistics may be used as a guide to help fine tune the options.
4328+.TP
4329+.B "-shade \fI<azimuth>x<elevation>"\fP
4330+\fRshade the image using a distant light source
4331+\'
4332+Specify \fIazimuth\fP and \fIelevation\fP as the position of the light
4333+source. Use \fB+shade\fP to return the shading results as a grayscale
4334+image.
4335+.TP
4336+.B "-shadow \fI<radius>{x<sigma>}"\fP
4337+\fRshadow the montage
4338+.TP
4339+.B "-shared-memory"
4340+\fRuse shared memory
4341+\'
4342+This option specifies whether the utility should attempt to use shared
4343+memory for pixmaps. GraphicsMagick must be compiled with shared
4344+memory support, and the display must support the \fIMIT-SHM\fP
4345+extension. Otherwise, this option is ignored. The default is
4346+\fBTrue\fP.
4347+.TP
4348+.B "-sharpen \fI<radius>{x<sigma>}"\fP
4349+\fRsharpen the image
4350+\'
4351+Use a Gaussian operator of the given radius and standard deviation
4352+(sigma).
4353+.TP
4354+.B "-shave \fI<width>x<height>{%}"\fP
4355+\fRshave pixels from the image edges
4356+\'
4357+Specify the width of the region to be removed from both
4358+sides of the image and the height of the regions to be removed from
4359+top and bottom.
4360+.TP
4361+.B "-shear \fI<x degrees>x<y degrees>"\fP
4362+\fRshear the image along the X or Y axis
4363+\'
4364+Use the specified positive or negative shear angle.
4365+\'
4366+Shearing slides one edge of an image along the X or Y axis, creating a
4367+parallelogram. An X direction shear slides an edge along the X axis,
4368+while a Y direction shear slides an edge along the Y axis. The amount
4369+of the shear is controlled by a shear angle. For X direction shears,
4370+\fIx degrees\fP is measured relative to the Y axis, and similarly,
4371+for Y direction shears \fIy degrees\fP is measured relative to the X
4372+axis.
4373+\'
4374+Empty triangles left over from shearing the image are filled with the
4375+color defined as \fBbackground\fP (class \fBbackgroundColor\fP).
4376+The color is specified using the format described under the
4377+\fB-fill\fP option.
4378+.TP
4379+.B "-silent"
4380+\fRoperate silently
4381+.TP
4382+.B "-size \fI<width>x<height>{+offset}"\fP
4383+\fRwidth and height of the image
4384+\'
4385+Use this option to specify the width and height of raw images whose
4386+dimensions are unknown such as \fBGRAY\fP, \fBRGB\fP, or
4387+\fBCMYK\fP. In addition to width and height, use \fB-size\fP with an
4388+offset to skip any header information in the image or tell the number
4389+of colors in a \fBMAP\fP image file, (e.g. -size 640x512+256).
4390+\'
4391+For Photo CD images, choose from these sizes:
4392+\'
4393+ 192x128
4394+ 384x256
4395+ 768x512
4396+ 1536x1024
4397+ 3072x2048
4398+\'
4399+\'
4400+Finally, use this option to choose a particular resolution layer of a JBIG
4401+or JPEG image (e.g. -size 1024x768).
4402+.TP
4403+.B "-snaps \fI<value>"\fP
4404+\fRnumber of screen snapshots
4405+\'
4406+Use this option
4407+to grab more than one image from the X server screen, to create
4408+an animation sequence.
4409+.TP
4410+.B "-solarize \fI<factor>"\fP
4411+\fRnegate all pixels above the threshold level
4412+\'
4413+Specify \fIfactor\fP as the
4414+percent threshold of the intensity (0 - 99.9%).
4415+\'
4416+This option produces a \fIsolarization\fP effect seen when exposing a
4417+photographic film to light during the development process.
4418+.TP
4419+.B "-spread \fI<amount>"\fP
4420+\fRdisplace image pixels by a random amount
4421+\'
4422+\fIAmount\fP defines the size of the neighborhood around each pixel to
4423+choose a candidate pixel to swap.
4424+.TP
4425+.B "-stegano \fI<offset>"\fP
4426+\fRhide watermark within an image
4427+\'
4428+Use an offset to start the image hiding some number of pixels from the
4429+beginning of the image. Note this offset and the image size. You will
4430+need this information to recover the steganographic image
4431+(e.g. display -size 320x256+35 stegano:image.png).
4432+.TP
4433+.B "-stereo"
4434+\fRcomposite two images to create a stereo anaglyph
4435+\'
4436+The left side of the stereo pair is saved as the red channel of the output
4437+image. The right side is saved as the green channel. Red-green stereo
4438+glasses are required to properly view the stereo image.
4439+.TP
4440+.B "-strip"
4441+\fRremove all profiles and text attributes from the image
4442+\'
4443+All embedded profiles and text attributes are stripped from the image.
4444+This is useful for images used for the web, or when output files need
4445+to be as small as possible
4446+\'
4447+Be careful not to use this option to remove author, copyright, and
4448+license information that you are required to retain when redistributing
4449+an image.
4450+.TP
4451+.B "-stroke \fI<color>"\fP
4452+\fRcolor to use when stroking a graphic primitive
4453+\'
4454+The color is specified using the format described under the \fB-fill\fP
4455+option.
4456+\'
4457+See \fB-draw\fP for further details.
4458+.TP
4459+.B "-strokewidth \fI<value>"\fP
4460+\fRset the stroke width
4461+\'
4462+See \fB-draw\fP for further details.
4463+.TP
4464+.B "-swirl \fI<degrees>"\fP
4465+\fRswirl image pixels about the center
4466+\'
4467+\fIDegrees\fP defines the tightness of the swirl.
4468+.TP
4469+.B "-text-font \fI<name>"\fP
4470+\fRfont for writing fixed-width text
4471+\'
4472+Specifies the name of the preferred font to use in fixed (typewriter style)
4473+formatted text. The default is 14 point \fICourier\fP.
4474+\'
4475+You can tag a font to specify whether it is a PostScript, TrueType, or
4476+X11 font. For example, Courier.ttf is a TrueType font
4477+and x:fixed is X11.
4478+.TP
4479+.B "-texture \fI<filename>"\fP
4480+\fRname of texture to tile onto the image background
4481+.TP
4482+.B "-threshold \fI<value>{%}"\fP
4483+\fRthreshold the image
4484+\'
4485+Modify the image such that any pixel sample with an intensity value
4486+greater than the threshold is assigned the maximum intensity (white), or
4487+otherwise is assigned the minimum intensity (black). If a percent prefix
4488+is applied, then the threshold is a percentage of the available range.
4489+\'
4490+To efficiently create a black and white image from a color image, use
4491+\'
4492+ gm convert -threshold 50% in.png out.png
4493+\'
4494+\'
4495+The optimum threshold value depends on the nature of the image.
4496+In order to threshold individual channels, use the \fB-operator\fP
4497+subcommand with it's \fBThreshold\fP, \fBThreshold-White\fP, or
4498+\fBThreshold-Black\fP options.
4499+.TP
4500+.B "-thumbnail \fI<width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}"\fP
4501+\fRresize an image (quickly)
4502+\'
4503+The \fB-thumbnail\fP command resizes the image as quickly as
4504+possible, with more concern for speed than resulting image quality.
4505+Regardless, resulting image quality should be acceptable for many
4506+uses. It is primarily intended to be used to generate smaller
4507+versions of the image, but may also be used to enlarge the image. The
4508+\fB-thumbnail\fP \fBgeometry\fP argument observes the same syntax
4509+and rules as it does for \fB-resize\fP.
4510+.TP
4511+.B "-tile \fI<filename>"\fP
4512+\fRtile image when filling a graphic primitive
4513+.TP
4514+.B "-tile \fI<geometry>"\fP
4515+\fRlayout of images [\fImontage\fP]
4516+.TP
4517+.B "-title \fI<string>"\fP
4518+\fRassign title to displayed image [\fIanimate, display, montage\fP]
4519+\'
4520+Use this option to assign a specific title to the image. This is
4521+assigned to the image window and is typically displayed in the window
4522+title bar. Optionally you can include the image filename, type,
4523+width, height, Exif data, or other image attribute by embedding
4524+special format characters described under the \fB-format\fP
4525+option.
4526+\'
4527+For example,
4528+\'
4529+ -title "%m:%f %wx%h"
4530+\'
4531+\'
4532+produces an image title of MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image
4533+titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480.
4534+.TP
4535+.B "-transform"
4536+\fRtransform the image
4537+\'
4538+This option applies the transformation matrix from a previous
4539+\fB-affine\fP option.
4540+\'
4541+ gm convert -affine 2,2,-2,2,0,0 -transform bird.ppm bird.jpg
4542+\'
4543+.TP
4544+.B "-transparent \fI<color>"\fP
4545+\fRmake this color transparent within the image
4546+\'
4547+The color is specified using the format described under the \fB-fill\fP
4548+option.
4549+.TP
4550+.B "-treedepth \fI<value>"\fP
4551+\fRtree depth for the color reduction algorithm
4552+\'
4553+Normally, this integer value is zero or one. A value of zero or one
4554+causes the use of an optimal tree depth for the color reduction
4555+algorithm
4556+\'
4557+An optimal depth generally allows the best representation of the source
4558+image with the fastest computational speed and the least amount of memory.
4559+However, the default depth is inappropriate for some images. To assure
4560+the best representation, try values between 2 and 8 for this parameter.
4561+Refer to
4562+quantize for more details.
4563+\'
4564+The \fB-colors\fP or \fB-monochrome\fP option, or writing to an image
4565+format which requires color reduction, is required for this option to
4566+take effect.
4567+.TP
4568+.B "-trim"
4569+\fRtrim an image
4570+\'
4571+This option removes any edges that are exactly the same color as the
4572+corner pixels. Use \fB-fuzz\fP to make \fB-trim\fP remove edges that
4573+are nearly the same color as the corner pixels.
4574+.TP
4575+.B "-type \fI<type>"\fP
4576+\fRthe image type
4577+\'
4578+Choose from:
4579+\fBBilevel\fP, \fBGrayscale\fP, \fBPalette\fP,
4580+\fBPaletteMatte\fP, \fBTrueColor\fP, \fBTrueColorMatte\fP,
4581+\fBColorSeparation\fP, \fBColorSeparationMatte\fP, or \fBOptimize\fP.
4582+\'
4583+Normally, when a format supports different subformats such as bilevel,
4584+grayscale, palette, truecolor, and truecolor+alpha, the encoder will try
4585+to choose a suitable subformat based on the nature of the image. The
4586+\fB-type\fP option may be used to tailor the output subformat. By
4587+default the output subformat is based on readily available image
4588+information and is usually similar to the input format.
4589+\'
4590+Specify -type Optimize in order to enable inspecting all pixels
4591+(if necessary) in order to find the most efficient subformat. Inspecting
4592+all of the pixels may be slow for very large images, particularly if they
4593+are stored in a disk cache. If an RGB image contains only gray pixels,
4594+then every pixel in the image must be inspected in order to decide that
4595+the image is actually grayscale!
4596+\'
4597+Sometimes a specific subformat is desired. For example, to force a JPEG
4598+image to be written in TrueColor RGB format even though only gray pixels
4599+are present, use
4600+\'
4601+ gm convert bird.pgm -type TrueColor bird.jpg
4602+\'
4603+\'
4604+Similarly, using -type TrueColorMatte will force the encoder to
4605+write an alpha channel even though the image is opaque, if the output
4606+format supports transparency.
4607+\'
4608+Some pseudo-formats (e.g. the XC format) will respect the requested
4609+type if it occurs previously on the command line. For example, to obtain
4610+a DirectClass solid color canvas image rather than PsuedoClass, use
4611+\'
4612+ gm convert -size 640x480 -type TrueColor xc:red red.miff
4613+\'
4614+\'
4615+Likewise, specify \fB-type\fP \fBBilevel\fP, \fBGrayscale\fP,
4616+\fBTrueColor\fP, or \fBTrueColorMatte\fP prior to reading a Postscript
4617+(or PDF file) in order to influence the type of image that Ghostcript
4618+returns. Reading performance will be dramatically improved for
4619+black/white Postscript if \fBBilevel\fP is specified, and will be
4620+considerably faster if \fBGrayscale\fP is specified.
4621+.TP
4622+.B "-update \fI<seconds>"\fP
4623+\fR
4624+detect when image file is modified and redisplay.
4625+\'
4626+Suppose that while you are displaying an image the file that is currently
4627+displayed is over-written.
4628+\fBdisplay\fP will automatically detect that
4629+the input file has been changed and update the displayed image accordingly.
4630+.TP
4631+.B "-units \fI<type>"\fP
4632+\fRthe units of image resolution
4633+\'
4634+Choose from: \fBUndefined\fP, \fBPixelsPerInch\fP, or
4635+\fBPixelsPerCentimeter\fP. This option is normally used in conjunction
4636+with the \fB-density\fP option.
4637+.TP
4638+.B "-unsharp \fI<radius>{x<sigma>}{+<amount>}{+<threshold>}"\fP
4639+\fRsharpen the image with an unsharp mask operator
4640+\'
4641+The \fB-unsharp\fP option sharpens an image. The image is convolved
4642+with a Gaussian operator of the given radius and standard deviation
4643+(sigma). For reasonable results, radius should be larger than sigma. Use
4644+a radius of 0 to have the method select a suitable radius.
4645+\'
4646+The parameters are:
4647+\'
4648+.in 15
4649+\'
4650+.in 15
4651+.B "radius"
4652+.in 20
4653+ \fR
4654+.in 20
4655+\'
4656+The radius of the Gaussian, in pixels, not counting the center pixel (default 0).
4657+\'
4658+.in 15
4659+.in 15
4660+.B "sigma"
4661+.in 20
4662+ \fR
4663+.in 20
4664+\'
4665+The standard deviation of the Gaussian, in pixels (default 1.0).
4666+\'
4667+.in 15
4668+.in 15
4669+.B "amount"
4670+.in 20
4671+ \fR
4672+.in 20
4673+\'
4674+The percentage of the difference between the original and the blur image that
4675+is added back into the original (default 1.0).
4676+\'
4677+.in 15
4678+.in 15
4679+.B "threshold"
4680+.in 20
4681+ \fR
4682+.in 20
4683+\'
4684+The threshold, as a fraction of MaxRGB, needed to apply the difference
4685+amount (default 0.05).
4686+\'
4687+.in 15
4688+\'
4689+\'
4690+.TP
4691+.B "-use-pixmap"
4692+\fRuse the pixmap
4693+.TP
4694+.B "-verbose"
4695+\fRprint detailed information about the image
4696+\'
4697+This information is printed: image scene number; image name; image size;
4698+the image class (\fIDirectClass\fP or \fIPseudoClass\fP); the total
4699+number of unique colors; and the number of seconds to read and transform
4700+the image. If the image is \fIDirectClass\fP, the total number of unique
4701+colors is not displayed unless \fB-verbose\fP is specified twice since
4702+it may take quite a long time to compute, particularly for deep images.
4703+If the image is \fIPseudoClass\fP then its pixels are defined by indexes
4704+into a colormap. If the image is \fIDirectClass\fP then each pixel
4705+includes a complete and independent color specification.
4706+\'
4707+If \fB-colors\fP is also specified, the total unique colors in the image
4708+and color reduction error values are printed. Refer to quantize
4709+for a description of these values.
4710+.TP
4711+.B "-version"
4712+\fRprint GraphicsMagick version string
4713+.TP
4714+.B "-view \fI<string>"\fP
4715+\fRFlashPix viewing parameters
4716+.TP
4717+.B "-virtual-pixel \fI<method>"\fP
4718+\fRspecify contents of "virtual pixels"
4719+\'
4720+This option
4721+defines "virtual pixels" for use in operations that can access pixels outside
4722+the boundaries of an image.
4723+\'
4724+Choose from these methods:
4725+\'
4726+.in 15
4727+\'
4728+.in 15
4729+.B "Constant"
4730+.in 20
4731+ \fR
4732+.in 20
4733+\'
4734+Use the image background color.
4735+\'
4736+.in 15
4737+.in 15
4738+.B "Edge"
4739+.in 20
4740+ \fR
4741+.in 20
4742+\'
4743+Extend the edge pixel toward infinity (default).
4744+\'
4745+.in 15
4746+.in 15
4747+.B "Mirror"
4748+.in 20
4749+ \fR
4750+.in 20
4751+\'
4752+Mirror the image.
4753+\'
4754+.in 15
4755+.in 15
4756+.B "Tile"
4757+.in 20
4758+ \fR
4759+.in 20
4760+\'
4761+Tile the image.
4762+\'
4763+.in 15
4764+\'
4765+\'
4766+\'
4767+This option affects operations that use
4768+virtual pixels such as \fB-blur\fP, \fB-sharpen\fP, \fB-wave\fP, etc.
4769+.TP
4770+.B "-visual \fI<type>"\fP
4771+\fRanimate images using this X visual type
4772+\'
4773+Choose from these visual classes:
4774+\'
4775+ StaticGray
4776+ GrayScale
4777+ StaticColor
4778+ PseudoColor
4779+ TrueColor
4780+ DirectColor
4781+ default
4782+ visual id
4783+\'
4784+\'
4785+The X server must support the visual you choose, otherwise an error occurs.
4786+If a visual is not specified, the visual class that can display the most
4787+simultaneous colors on the default screen is chosen.
4788+.TP
4789+.B "-watermark \fI<brightness>x<saturation>"\fP
4790+\fRpercent brightness and saturation of a watermark
4791+.TP
4792+.B "-wave \fI<amplitude>x<wavelength>"\fP
4793+\fRalter an image along a sine wave
4794+\'
4795+Specify \fIamplitude\fP and \fIwavelength\fP
4796+of the wave.
4797+.TP
4798+.B "-white-point \fI<x>,<y>"\fP
4799+\fRchromaticity white point
4800+.TP
4801+.B "-white-threshold \fIred[,green][,blue][,opacity]"\fP
4802+\fRpixels above the threshold become white
4803+\'
4804+Use \fB-white-threshold\fP to set pixels with values above the specified
4805+threshold to maximum value (white). If only one value is supplied, or the
4806+red, green, and blue values are identical, then intensity thresholding is
4807+used. If the color threshold values are not identical then channel-based
4808+thresholding is used, and color distortion will occur. Specify a negative
4809+value (e.g. -1) if you want a channel to be ignored but you do want to
4810+threshold a channel later in the list. If a percent (%) symbol is
4811+appended, then the values are treated as a percentage of maximum
4812+range.
4813+.TP
4814+.B "-window \fI<id>"\fP
4815+\fRmake image the background of a window
4816+\'
4817+\fIid\fP can be a window id or name. Specify \fBroot\fP to
4818+select X's root window as the target window.
4819+\'
4820+By default the image is tiled onto the background of the target
4821+window. If \fBbackdrop\fP or \fB-geometry\fP are
4822+specified, the image is surrounded by the background color. Refer to
4823+\fBX RESOURCES\fP for details.
4824+\'
4825+The image will not display on the root window if the image has more
4826+unique colors than the target window colormap allows. Use
4827+\fB-colors\fP to reduce the number of colors.
4828+.TP
4829+.B "-window-group"
4830+\fRspecify the window group
4831+.TP
4832+.B "-write \fI<filename>"\fP
4833+\fRwrite an intermediate image [\fIconvert, composite\fP]
4834+\'
4835+The current image is written to the specified filename and then
4836+processing continues using that image. The following is an example of how
4837+several sizes of an image may be generated in one command (repeat as
4838+often as needed):
4839+\'
4840+ gm convert input.jpg -resize 50% -write input50.jpg \\
4841+ -resize 25% input25.jpg
4842+\'
4843+.TP
4844+.B "-write \fI<filename>"\fP
4845+\fRwrite the image to a file [\fIdisplay\fP]
4846+\'
4847+If \fIfilename\fP already exists, you will be prompted as to whether it should
4848+be overwritten.
4849+\'
4850+By default, the image is written in the format that it was read in as.
4851+To specify a particular image format, prefix \fIfilename\fP with the
4852+image type and a colon (e.g., ps:image) or specify the image type as
4853+the filename suffix (e.g., image.ps). Specify file as - for standard
4854+output. If file has the extension \fB.Z\fP or \fB.gz\fP, the file
4855+size is \fBcompressed\fP using compress or \fBgzip\fP
4856+respectively. Precede the image file name with | to pipe to a system
4857+command.
4858+\'
4859+Use \fB-compress\fP to specify the type of image compression.
4860+\'
4861+The equivalent X resource for this option is
4862+\fBwriteFilename\fP (class \fBWriteFilename\fP).
4863+See
4864+"X Resources", below,
4865+for details.
4866+.SH ENVIRONMENT
4867+.TP
4868+.B "COLUMNS"
4869+\fROutput screen width. Used when formatting text for the screen. Many
4870+Unix systems keep this shell variable up to date, but it may need to be
4871+explicitly exported in order for GraphicsMagick to see it.
4872+.TP
4873+.B "DISPLAY"
4874+\fRX11 display ID (host, display number, and screen in the form
4875+hostname:display.screen).
4876+.TP
4877+.B "HOME"
4878+\fRLocation of user's home directory. For security reasons, now only
4879+observed by "uninstalled" builds of GraphicsMagick which do not have
4880+their location hard-coded or set by an installer. When supported,
4881+GraphicsMagick searches for configuration files in $HOME/.magick if
4882+the directory exists. See \fBMAGICK_CODER_MODULE_PATH\fP,
4883+\fBMAGICK_CONFIGURE_PATH\fP, and \fBMAGICK_FILTER_MODULE_PATH\fP if
4884+more flexibility is needed.
4885+.TP
4886+.B "MAGICK_ACCESS_MONITOR"
4887+\fRWhen set to \fBTRUE\fP, command line monitor mode (enabled by
4888+\fB-monitor\fP) will also show files accessed (including temporary
4889+files) and any external commands which are executed. This is useful
4890+for debugging, but also illustrates arguments made available to an
4891+access handler registered by the
4892+\fBMagickSetConfirmAccessHandler()\fP C library function.
4893+.TP
4894+.B "MAGICK_CODER_STABILITY"
4895+\fRThe minimum coder stability level before it will be used. The
4896+available levels are \fBPRIMARY\fP, \fBSTABLE\fP, \fBUNSTABLE\fP,
4897+and \fBBROKEN\fP. The default minimum level is \fBUNSTABLE\fP,
4898+which means that all available working coders will be used. The
4899+purpose of this option is to reduce the security exposure (or apparent
4900+complexity) due to the huge number of formats supported. Coders at the
4901+\fBPRIMARY\fP level are commonly used formats with very well
4902+maintained implementations. Coders at the \fBSTABLE\fP level are
4903+reasonably well maintained but represent less used formats. Coders at
4904+the \fBUNSTABLE\fP level either have weak implementations, the file
4905+format itself is weak, or the probability the coder will be needed is
4906+vanishingly small. Coders at the \fBBROKEN\fP level are known to
4907+often not work properly or might not be useful in their current state
4908+at all.
4909+.TP
4910+.B "MAGICK_CODER_MODULE_PATH"
4911+\fRSearch path to use when searching for image format coder modules.
4912+This path allows the user to arbitrarily extend the image formats
4913+supported by GraphicsMagick by adding loadable modules to an arbitrary
4914+location rather than copying them into the GraphicsMagick installation
4915+directory. The formatting of the search path is similar to operating
4916+system search paths (i.e. colon delimited for Unix, and semi-colon
4917+delimited for Microsoft Windows). This user specified search path is used
4918+before trying the default search path.
4919+.TP
4920+.B "MAGICK_CONFIGURE_PATH"
4921+\fRSearch path to use when searching for configuration (.mgk) files.
4922+The formatting of the search path is similar to operating system search
4923+paths (i.e. colon delimited for Unix, and semi-colon delimited for
4924+Microsoft Windows). This user specified search path is used before trying
4925+the default search path.
4926+.TP
4927+.B "MAGICK_DEBUG"
4928+\fRDebug options (see \fB-debug\fP for details). Setting the
4929+configure debug option via an environment variable
4930+(e.g. \fBMAGICK_DEBUG=configure\fP) is necessary to see the complete
4931+initialization process, which includes searching for configuration
4932+files.
4933+.TP
4934+.B "MAGICK_FILTER_MODULE_PATH"
4935+\fRSearch path to use when searching for filter process modules
4936+(invoked via \fB-process\fP). This path allows the user to arbitrarily
4937+extend GraphicsMagick's image processing functionality by adding loadable
4938+modules to an arbitrary location rather than copying them into the
4939+GraphicsMagick installation directory. The formatting of the search path
4940+is similar to operating system search paths (i.e. colon delimited for
4941+Unix, and semi-colon delimited for Microsoft Windows). This user
4942+specified search path is used before trying the default search path.
4943+.TP
4944+.B "MAGICK_GHOSTSCRIPT_PATH"
4945+\fRFor Microsoft Windows, specify the path to the Ghostscript
4946+installation rather than searching for it via the Windows registry.
4947+This helps in case Ghostscript is not installed via the Ghostscript
4948+Windows installer or the user wants more control over the Ghostscript
4949+used.
4950+.TP
4951+.B "MAGICK_HOME"
4952+\fRPath to top of GraphicsMagick installation directory. Only observed
4953+by "uninstalled" builds of GraphicsMagick which do not have their location
4954+hard-coded or set by an installer.
4955+.TP
4956+.B "MAGICK_MMAP_READ"
4957+\fRIf \fBMAGICK_MMAP_READ\fP is set to \fBTRUE\fP, GraphicsMagick
4958+will attempt to memory-map the input file for reading. This usually
4959+substantially improves repeated read performance since the file is
4960+already in memory after the first time it has been read. However,
4961+testing shows that performance may be reduced for files accessed for
4962+the first time since data is accessed via page-faults (upon first
4963+access) and many operating systems fail to do sequential read-ahead of
4964+memory mapped files, and particularly if those files are accessed over
4965+a network. If many large input files are read, then enabling this
4966+option may harm performance by overloading the operating system's VM
4967+system as it then needs to free unmapped pages and map new ones.
4968+.TP
4969+.B "MAGICK_IO_FSYNC"
4970+\fRIf \fBMAGICK_IO_FSYNC\fP is set to \fBTRUE\fP, then GraphicsMagick
4971+will request that the output file is fully flushed and synchronized to
4972+disk when it is closed. This incurs a performance penalty, but has the
4973+benefit that if the power fails or the system crashes, the file should be
4974+valid on disk. If image files are referenced from a database, then this
4975+option helps assure that the files referenced by the database are
4976+valid.
4977+.TP
4978+.B "MAGICK_IOBUF_SIZE"
4979+\fRThe amount of I/O buffering (in bytes) to use when reading and
4980+writing encoded files. The default is 16384, which is observed to work
4981+well for many cases. The best value for a local filesystem is usually the
4982+the native filesystem block size (e.g. 4096, 8192, or even 131,072 for
4983+ZFS) in order to minimize the number of physical disk I/O operations.
4984+I/O performance to files accessed over a network may benefit
4985+significantly by tuning this option. Larger values are not necessarily
4986+better (they may be slower!), and there is rarely any benefit from using
4987+values larger than 32768. Use convert's \fB-verbose\fP option in order
4988+to evaluate read and write rates in pixels per second while keeping in
4989+mind that the operating system will try to cache files in RAM.
4990+.TP
4991+.B "MAGICK_LIMIT_DISK"
4992+\fRMaximum amount of disk space allowed for use by the pixel cache.
4993+.TP
4994+.B "MAGICK_LIMIT_FILES"
4995+\fRMaximum number of open files.
4996+.TP
4997+.B "MAGICK_LIMIT_MAP"
4998+\fRMaximum size of a memory mapped file allocation. A memory mapped
4999+file consumes memory when the file is accessed, although the system
5000+may reclaim such memory when needed.
5001+.TP
5002+.B "MAGICK_LIMIT_MEMORY"
5003+\fRMaximum amount of memory to allocate from the heap.
5004+.TP
5005+.B "MAGICK_LIMIT_PIXELS"
5006+\fRMaximum number of total pixels (image rows times image colums) to
5007+allow for any image which is requested to be created or read. This is
5008+useful to place a limit on how large an image may be. If the input
5009+image file has image dimensions larger than the pixel limit, then the
5010+image memory allocation is denied and an error is returned
5011+immediately. This is a per-image limit and does not limit the total
5012+number of pixels due to multiple image frames/pages (e.g. multi-page
5013+document or an animation).
5014+.TP
5015+.B "MAGICK_LIMIT_WIDTH"
5016+\fRMaximum pixel width of an image read, or created.
5017+.TP
5018+.B "MAGICK_LIMIT_HEIGHT"
5019+\fRMaximum pixel height of an image read, or created.
5020+.TP
5021+.B "MAGICK_TMPDIR"
5022+\fRPath to directory where GraphicsMagick should write temporary
5023+files. The default is to use the system default, or the location set by
5024+\fBTMPDIR\fP.
5025+.TP
5026+.B "TMPDIR"
5027+\fRFor POSIX-compatible systems (Unix-compatible), the path to the
5028+directory where all applications should write temporary files.
5029+Overridden by \fBMAGICK_TMPDIR\fP if it is set.
5030+.TP
5031+.B "TMP \fIor TEMP"\fP
5032+\fRFor Microsoft Windows, the path to the directory where applications
5033+should write temporary files. Overridden by \fBMAGICK_TMPDIR\fP if it
5034+is set.
5035+.TP
5036+.B "OMP_NUM_THREADS"
5037+\fRAs per the OpenMP standard, this specifies the number of threads to
5038+use in parallel regions. Some compilers default the number of threads to
5039+use to the number of processor cores available while others default to
5040+just one thread. See the OpenMP specification for other standard
5041+adjustments and your compiler's manual for vendor-specific settings.
5042+.SH CONFIGURATION FILES
5043+GraphicsMagick uses a number of XML format configuration files:
5044+.TP
5045+.B "colors.mgk"
5046+\fRcolors configuration file
5047+\'
5048+ <?xml version="1.0"?>
5049+ <colormap>
5050+ <color name="AliceBlue" red="240" green="248" blue="255"
5051+ compliance="SVG, X11, XPM" />
5052+ </colormap>
5053+\'
5054+.TP
5055+.B "delegates.mgk"
5056+\fRdelegates configuration file
5057+.TP
5058+.B "log.mgk"
5059+\fRlogging configuration file
5060+\'
5061+ <?xml version="1.0"?>
5062+ <magicklog>
5063+ <log events="None" />
5064+ <log output="stdout" />
5065+ <log filename="Magick-%d.log" />
5066+ <log generations="3" />
5067+ <log limit="2000" />
5068+ <log format="%t %r %u %p %m/%f/%l/%d:\\n %e" />
5069+ </magicklog>
5070+\'
5071+.TP
5072+.B "modules.mgk"
5073+\fRloadable modules configuration file
5074+\'
5075+ <?xml version="1.0"?>
5076+ <modulemap>
5077+ <module magick="8BIM" name="META" />
5078+ </modulemap>
5079+\'
5080+.TP
5081+.B "type.mgk"
5082+\fRmaster type (fonts) configuration file
5083+\'
5084+ <?xml version="1.0"?>
5085+ <typemap>
5086+ <\fB\fPinclude file="type-windows.mgk" />
5087+ <type
5088+ name="AvantGarde-Book"
5089+ fullname="AvantGarde Book"
5090+ family="AvantGarde"
5091+ foundry="URW"
5092+ weight="400"
5093+ style="normal"
5094+ stretch="normal"
5095+ format="type1"
5096+ metrics="/usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts/a010013l.afm"
5097+ glyphs="/usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts/a010013l.pfb"
5098+ />
5099+ </typemap>
5100+\'
25101 .SH GM ANIMATE
3-
5102+\'
45103 \fBAnimate\fP displays a sequence of images on any workstation display
55104 running an X server. \fBanimate\fP first determines the hardware capabilities
65105 of the workstation. If the number of unique colors in an image is less
75106 than or equal to the number the workstation can support, the image is displayed
85107 in an X window. Otherwise the number of colors in the image is first reduced
95108 to match the color resolution of the workstation before it is displayed.
10-
5109+\'
115110 This means that a continuous-tone 24 bits-per-pixel image can display on
125111 a 8 bit pseudo-color device or monochrome device. In most instances the
135112 reduced color image closely resembles the original. Alternatively, a monochrome
145113 or pseudo-color image sequence can display on a continuous-tone 24 bits-per-pixel
155114 device.
16-
5115+\'
175116 To help prevent color flashing on X server visuals that have colormaps,
185117 \fBanimate\fP
195118 creates a single colormap from the image sequence. This can be rather time
@@ -25,30 +5124,30 @@
255124 for details. This method is recommended for colormapped X server because
265125 it eliminates the need to compute a global colormap.
275126 .SH EXAMPLES
28-
5127+\'
295128 To animate a set of images of a cockatoo, use:
30-
5129+\'
315130 gm animate cockatoo.*
32-
33-
5131+\'
5132+\'
345133 To animate a cockatoo image sequence while using the Standard Colormap
355134 \fIbest\fP, use:
36-
5135+\'
375136 xstdcmap -best
385137 gm animate -map best cockatoo.*
39-
40-
5138+\'
5139+\'
415140 To animate an image of a cockatoo without a border centered on a backdrop,
425141 use:
43-
44-
5142+\'
5143+\'
455144 gm animate +borderwidth -backdrop cockatoo.*
46-
5145+\'
475146 .SH OPTIONS
48-
5147+\'
495148 For a more detailed description of each option, see
505149 Options, above.
51-
5150+\'
525151 .TP
535152 .B "-authenticate \fI<string>"\fP
545153 \fRdecrypt image with this password
@@ -202,22 +5301,22 @@
2025301 .TP
2035302 .B "-window \fI<id>"\fP
2045303 \fRmake image the background of a window
205-
5304+\'
2065305 For a more detailed description of each option, see
2075306 Options, above.
208-
209-
5307+\'
5308+\'
2105309 Any option you specify on the command line remains in effect for the group
2115310 of images following it, until the group is terminated by the appearance of
2125311 any option or \fB-noop\fP. For example, to animate three images, the first
2135312 with 32 colors, the second with an unlimited number of colors, and the
2145313 third with only 16 colors, use:
215-
216-
5314+\'
5315+\'
2175316 gm animate -colors 32 cockatoo.1 -noop cockatoo.2
2185317 -colors 16 cockatoo.3
219-
220-
5318+\'
5319+\'
2215320 \fBAnimate\fP options can appear on the command line or in your X resources
2225321 file. See \fIX(1)\fP. Options on the command line supersede values specified
2235322 in your X resources file.
@@ -227,36 +5326,36 @@
2275326 is specified in the image. Otherwise the images will display in the order
2285327 they appear on the command line.
2295328 .SH MOUSE BUTTONS
230-
5329+\'
2315330 Press any button to map or unmap the Command widget. See the next section
2325331 for more information about the Command widget.
2335332 .SH COMMAND WIDGET
234-
5333+\'
2355334 The Command widget lists a number of sub-menus and commands. They are
236-
5335+\'
2375336 \fBAnimate\fP
238-
5337+\'
2395338 Open
2405339 Play
2415340 Step
2425341 Repeat
2435342 Auto Reverse
244-
5343+\'
2455344 \fBSpeed\fP
246-
5345+\'
2475346 Faster
2485347 Slower
249-
5348+\'
2505349 \fBDirection\fP
251-
5350+\'
2525351 Forward
2535352 Reverse
254-
5353+\'
2555354 \fBImage Info\fP
2565355 \fBHelp\fP
2575356 \fBQuit\fP
258-
259-
5357+\'
5358+\'
2605359 Menu items with a indented triangle have a sub-menu. They are represented
2615360 above as the indented items. To access a sub-menu item, move the pointer
2625361 to the appropriate menu and press a button and drag. When you find the
@@ -265,25 +5364,25 @@
2655364 particular command.
2665365 .SH KEYBOARD ACCELERATORS
2675366 .in 15
268-
5367+\'
2695368 .in 15
2705369 .B "\fBCtl+O\fP"
2715370 .in 20
272-\fR
5371+ \fR
2735372 .in 20
2745373 Press to load an image from a file.
2755374 .in 15
2765375 .in 15
2775376 .B "\fBspace\fP"
2785377 .in 20
279-\fR
5378+ \fR
2805379 .in 20
2815380 Press to display the next image in the sequence.
2825381 .in 15
2835382 .in 15
2845383 .B "\fB<\fP"
2855384 .in 20
286-\fR
5385+ \fR
2875386 .in 20
2885387 Press to speed-up the display of the images. Refer to
2895388 \fB-delay\fP for more information.
@@ -291,7 +5390,7 @@
2915390 .in 15
2925391 .B "\fB>\fP"
2935392 .in 20
294-\fR
5393+ \fR
2955394 .in 20
2965395 Press to slow the display of the images. Refer to
2975396 \fB-delay\fP for more information.
@@ -299,7 +5398,7 @@
2995398 .in 15
3005399 .B "\fB?\fP"
3015400 .in 20
302-\fR
5401+ \fR
3035402 .in 20
3045403 Press to display information about the image. Press
3055404 any key or button to erase the information.
@@ -311,79 +5410,79 @@
3115410 .in 15
3125411 .B "\fBF1\fP"
3135412 .in 20
314-\fR
5413+ \fR
3155414 .in 20
3165415 Press to display helpful information about \fBanimate(1)\fP.
3175416 .in 15
3185417 .in 15
3195418 .B "\fBCtl-q\fP"
3205419 .in 20
321-\fR
5420+ \fR
3225421 .in 20
3235422 Press to discard all images and exit program.
3245423 .in 15
325-
5424+\'
3265425 .SH X RESOURCES
327-
5426+\'
3285427 \fBAnimate\fP options can appear on the command line or in your X resource
3295428 file. Options on the command line supersede values specified in your X
3305429 resource file. See \fBX(1)\fP for more information on X resources.
331-
5430+\'
3325431 All \fBanimate\fP options have a corresponding X resource. In addition,
3335432 the \fBanimate\fP program uses the following X resources:
3345433 .in 15
335-
5434+\'
3365435 .in 15
3375436 .B "\fBbackground\fP \fB(\fP\fIclass\fP \fBBackground)\fP"
3385437 .in 20
339-\fR
340-.in 20
341-
5438+ \fR
5439+.in 20
5440+\'
3425441 Specifies the preferred color to use for the Image window background. The
3435442 default is #ccc.
3445443 .in 15
3455444 .in 15
3465445 .B "\fBborderColor\fP \fB(\fP\fIclass\fP \fBBorderColor)\fP"
3475446 .in 20
348-\fR
349-.in 20
350-
5447+ \fR
5448+.in 20
5449+\'
3515450 Specifies the preferred color to use for the Image window border. The default
3525451 is #ccc.
3535452 .in 15
3545453 .in 15
3555454 .B "\fBborderWidth\fP \fB(\fP\fIclass\fP \fBBorderWidth)\fP"
3565455 .in 20
357-\fR
358-.in 20
359-
5456+ \fR
5457+.in 20
5458+\'
3605459 Specifies the width in pixels of the Image window border. The default is
3615460 2.
3625461 .in 15
3635462 .in 15
3645463 .B "\fBfont\fP \fB(\fP\fIclass\fP \fBFont\fP \fBor\fP \fBFontList)\fP"
3655464 .in 20
366-\fR
367-.in 20
368-
5465+ \fR
5466+.in 20
5467+\'
3695468 Specifies the name of the preferred font to use in normal formatted text.
3705469 The default is 14 point \fIHelvetica\fP.
3715470 .in 15
3725471 .in 15
3735472 .B "\fBforeground\fP \fB(\fP\fIclass\fP \fBForeground)\fP"
3745473 .in 20
375-\fR
376-.in 20
377-
5474+ \fR
5475+.in 20
5476+\'
3785477 Specifies the preferred color to use for text within the Image window.
3795478 The default is black.
3805479 .in 15
3815480 .in 15
3825481 .B "\fBgeometry\fP \fB(\fP\fIclass\fP \fBgeometry)\fP"
3835482 .in 20
384-\fR
385-.in 20
386-
5483+ \fR
5484+.in 20
5485+\'
3875486 Specifies the preferred size and position of the image window. It is not
3885487 necessarily obeyed by all window managers.
3895488 Offsets, if present, are handled in \fIX(1)\fP style. A negative x offset is
@@ -394,9 +5493,9 @@
3945493 .in 15
3955494 .B "\fBiconGeometry\fP \fB(\fP\fIclass\fP \fBIconGeometry)\fP"
3965495 .in 20
397-\fR
398-.in 20
399-
5496+ \fR
5497+.in 20
5498+\'
4005499 Specifies the preferred size and position of the application when iconified.
4015500 It is not necessarily obeyed by all window managers.
4025501 Offsets, if present, are handled in the same manner as in class Geometry.
@@ -404,9 +5503,9 @@
4045503 .in 15
4055504 .B "\fBiconic\fP \fB(\fP\fIclass\fP \fBIconic)\fP"
4065505 .in 20
407-\fR
408-.in 20
409-
5506+ \fR
5507+.in 20
5508+\'
4105509 This resource indicates that you would prefer that the application's windows
4115510 initially not be visible as if the windows had be immediately iconified
4125511 by you. Window managers may choose not to honor the application's request.
@@ -414,9 +5513,9 @@
4145513 .in 15
4155514 .B "\fBmatteColor\fP \fB(\fP\fIclass\fP \fBMatteColor)\fP"
4165515 .in 20
417-\fR
418-.in 20
419-
5516+ \fR
5517+.in 20
5518+\'
4205519 Specify the color of windows. It is used for the backgrounds of windows,
4215520 menus, and notices. A 3D effect is achieved by using highlight and shadow
4225521 colors derived from this color. Default value: #ddd.
@@ -424,9 +5523,9 @@
4245523 .in 15
4255524 .B "\fBname\fP \fB(\fP\fIclass\fP \fBName)\fP"
4265525 .in 20
427-\fR
428-.in 20
429-
5526+ \fR
5527+.in 20
5528+\'
4305529 This resource specifies the name under which resources for the application
4315530 should be found. This resource is useful in shell aliases to distinguish
4325531 between invocations of an application, without resorting to creating links
@@ -435,9 +5534,9 @@
4355534 .in 15
4365535 .B "\fBsharedMemory\fP \fB(\fP\fIclass\fP \fBSharedMemory)\fP"
4375536 .in 20
438-\fR
439-.in 20
440-
5537+ \fR
5538+.in 20
5539+\'
4415540 This resource specifies whether animate should attempt use shared memory
4425541 for pixmaps. ImageMagick must be compiled with shared memory support, and
4435542 the display must support the MIT-SHM extension. Otherwise, this resource
@@ -446,26 +5545,26 @@
4465545 .in 15
4475546 .B "\fBtext_font\fP \fB(\fP\fIclass\fP \fBtextFont)\fP"
4485547 .in 20
449-\fR
450-.in 20
451-
5548+ \fR
5549+.in 20
5550+\'
4525551 Specifies the name of the preferred font to use in fixed (typewriter style)
4535552 formatted text. The default is 14 point \fICourier\fP.
4545553 .in 15
4555554 .in 15
4565555 .B "\fBtitle\fP \fB(\fP\fIclass\fP \fBTitle)\fP"
4575556 .in 20
458-\fR
459-.in 20
460-
5557+ \fR
5558+.in 20
5559+\'
4615560 This resource specifies the title to be used for the Image window. This
4625561 information is sometimes used by a window manager to provide some sort
4635562 of header identifying the window. The default is the image file name.
4645563 .in 15
465-
5564+\'
4665565 .SH GM BATCH
4675566 .SH DESCRIPTION
468-
5567+\'
4695568 \fBbatch\fP executes an arbitary number of the utility commands
4705569 (e.g. \fBconvert\fP) in the form of a simple linear batch script in
4715570 order to improve execution efficiency, and/or to allow use as a
@@ -479,19 +5578,19 @@
4795578 converts all files matching '*.jpg' to TIFF format while rotating each
4805579 file by 90 degrees and stripping all embedded profiles. The shell
4815580 script syntax is standard Unix shell:
482-
5581+\'
4835582 for file in *.jpg
4845583 do
4855584 outfile=`basename $file .jpg`.tiff
4865585 echo convert -verbose "'$file'" -rotate 90 \\
4875586 +profile "'*'" "'$outfile'"
4885587 done | gm batch -echo on -feedback on -
489-
490-
5588+\'
5589+\'
4915590 We can accomplish the same as the previous example by putting all the
4925591 commands in a text file and then specifying the name of the text file
4935592 as the script to execute:
494-
5593+\'
4955594 for file in *.jpg
4965595 do
4975596 outfile=`basename $file .jpg`.tiff
@@ -499,21 +5598,21 @@
4995598 +profile "'*'" "'$outfile'"
5005599 done > script.txt
5015600 gm batch -echo on -feedback on script.txt
502-
5601+\'
5035602 .SH OPTIONS
504-
5603+\'
5055604 Options are processed from left to right and must appear before any filename argument.
5065605 .TP
5075606 .B "-echo \fIon|off"\fP
5085607 \fRcommand echo on or off
509-
5608+\'
5105609 Specify \fBon\fP to enable echoing commands to standard output as
5115610 they are read or \fBoff\fP to disable. The default is
5125611 \fBoff\fP.
5135612 .TP
5145613 .B "-escape \fIunix|windows"\fP
5155614 \fRParse using unix or windows syntax
516-
5615+\'
5175616 Commands must be parsed from the input stream and escaping needs to be
5185617 used to protect spaces or quoting characters in the input. Specify
5195618 \fBunix\fP to use unix-style command line parsing or \fBwindows\fP
@@ -525,42 +5624,42 @@
5255624 .TP
5265625 .B "-fail \fItext"\fP
5275626 \fRtext to print if a command fails
528-
5627+\'
5295628 When feedback is enabled, this specifies the text to print when the
5305629 command fails. The default text is \fBFAIL\fP.
5315630 .TP
5325631 .B "-feedback \fIon|off"\fP
5335632 \fRenable error feedback
534-
5633+\'
5355634 Print text (see -pass and -fail options) feedback after each
5365635 command to indicate the result, the default is \fBoff\fP.
5375636 .TP
5385637 .B "-help"
539-
5638+\'
5405639 Prints batch command help.
5415640 .TP
5425641 .B "-pass \fItext"\fP
5435642 \fRtext to print if a command passes
544-
5643+\'
5455644 When feedback is enabled, this specifies the text to print when the
5465645 command passes. The default text is \fBPASS\fP.
5475646 .TP
5485647 .B "-prompt \fItext"\fP
5495648 \fRPrompt text to use for command line
550-
5649+\'
5515650 If no filename argument was specified, a simple command prompt appears
5525651 where you may enter GraphicsMagick commands. The default prompt is
5535652 \fBGM>\fP. Use this option to change the prompt to something else.
5545653 .TP
5555654 .B "-stop-on-error \fIon|off"\fP
5565655 \fRSpecify if command processing stops on error
557-
5656+\'
5585657 Normally command processing continues if a command encounters an
5595658 error. Specify \fB-stop-on-error on\fP to cause processing to quit
5605659 immediately on error.
5615660 .SH GM BENCHMARK
5625661 .SH DESCRIPTION
563-
5662+\'
5645663 \fBbenchmark\fP executes an arbitrary \fBgm\fP utility command
5655664 (e.g. \fBconvert\fP) for one or more loops, and/or a specified
5665665 execution time, and reports many execution metrics. For builds using
@@ -572,30 +5671,30 @@
5725671 .SH EXAMPLES
5735672 To obtain benchmark information for a single execution of a
5745673 command:
575-
5674+\'
5765675 gm benchmark convert input.ppm -gaussian 0x1 output.ppm
577-
5676+\'
5785677 To obtain benchmark information from 100 iterations of the
5795678 command:
580-
5679+\'
5815680 gm benchmark -iterations 100 convert input.ppm \\
5825681 -gaussian 0x1 output.ppm
583-
5682+\'
5845683 To obtain benchmark information by iterating the command until a
5855684 specified amount of time (in seconds) has been consumed:
586-
5685+\'
5875686 gm benchmark -duration 30 convert input.ppm \\
5885687 -gaussian 0x1 output.ppm
589-
5688+\'
5905689 To obtain a full performance report with an increasing number of
5915690 threads (1-32 threads, stepping the number of threads by four each
5925691 time):
593-
5692+\'
5945693 gm benchmark -duration 3 -stepthreads 4 convert \\
5955694 input.ppm -gaussian 0x2 output.ppm
596-
5695+\'
5975696 Here is the interpretation of the output:
598-
5697+\'
5995698 \fBthreads\fP - number of threads used.
6005699 \fBiter\fP - number of command iterations executed.
6015700 \fBuser\fP - total user time consumed.
@@ -604,7 +5703,7 @@
6045703 \fBiter/cpu\fP - amount of CPU time consumed per iteration.
6055704 \fBspeedup\fP - speedup compared with one thread.
6065705 \fBkarp-flatt\fP - Karp-Flatt measure of speedup efficiency.
607-
5706+\'
6085707 \fIPlease note that the reported "speedup" is based on the
6095708 execution time of just one thread. A preliminary warm-up pass is used
6105709 before timing the first loop in order to ensure that the CPU is
@@ -629,7 +5728,7 @@
6295728 elapsed.
6305729 .TP
6315730 .B "-help"
632-
5731+\'
6335732 Prints benchmark command help.
6345733 .TP
6355734 .B "-iterations \fIloops"\fP
@@ -652,7 +5751,7 @@
6525751 threads is taken from the standard OMP_NUM_THREADS
6535752 environment variable.
6545753 .SH GM COMPARE
655-
5754+\'
6565755 \fBcompare\fP compares two similar images using a specified statistical
6575756 method (see \fB-metric\fP) and/or by writing a difference image
6585757 (\fB-file\fP), with the altered pixels annotated using a specified
@@ -661,27 +5760,27 @@
6615760 image and \fIcompare-image\fP is the (possibly) altered version, which
6625761 should have the same dimensions as \fIreference-image\fP.
6635762 .SH EXAMPLES
664-
5763+\'
6655764 To compare two images using Mean Square Error (MSE) statistical analysis
6665765 use:
667-
5766+\'
6685767 gm compare -metric mse original.miff compare.miff
669-
670-
5768+\'
5769+\'
6715770 To create an annotated difference image use:
672-
5771+\'
6735772 gm compare -highlight-style assign -highlight-color purple \\
6745773 -file diff.miff original.miff compare.miff
675-
5774+\'
6765775 .SH OPTIONS
677-
5776+\'
6785777 Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on
6795778 the command line remains in effect only for the image that follows. All
6805779 options are reset to their default values after each image is read.
681-
5780+\'
6825781 For a more detailed description of each option, see
6835782 Options, above.
684-
5783+\'
6855784 .TP
6865785 .B "-authenticate \fI<string>"\fP
6875786 \fRdecrypt image with this password
@@ -754,18 +5853,18 @@
7545853 .TP
7555854 .B "-version"
7565855 \fRprint GraphicsMagick version string
757-
5856+\'
7585857 For a more detailed description of each option, see
7595858 Options, above.
760-
5859+\'
7615860 .SH GM COMPOSITE
762-
5861+\'
7635862 \fBcomposite\fP composites (combines) images to create new images.
7645863 \fIbase-image\fP is the base image and \fIchange-image\fP contains the changes.
7655864 \fIouput-image\fP is the result, and normally has the same dimensions
7665865 as \fIbase-image\fP.
767-
768-
5866+\'
5867+\'
7695868 The optional \fImask-image\fP can be used to provide opacity information
7705869 for \fIchange-image\fP when it has none or if you want a different mask.
7715870 A mask image is typically grayscale and the same size as
@@ -773,49 +5872,49 @@
7735872 to grayscale and the resulting intensities are used as opacity
7745873 information.
7755874 .SH EXAMPLES
776-
5875+\'
7775876 To composite an image of a cockatoo with a perch, use:
778-
5877+\'
7795878 gm composite cockatoo.miff perch.ras composite.miff
780-
781-
5879+\'
5880+\'
7825881 To compute the difference between images in a series, use:
783-
5882+\'
7845883 gm composite -compose difference series.2 series.1
7855884 difference.miff
786-
787-
5885+\'
5886+\'
7885887 To composite an image of a cockatoo with a perch starting at location (100,150),
7895888 use:
790-
5889+\'
7915890 gm composite -geometry +100+150 cockatoo.miff
7925891 perch.ras composite.miff
793-
794-
5892+\'
5893+\'
7955894 To tile a logo across your image of a cockatoo, use
796-
5895+\'
7975896 gm convert +shade 30x60 cockatoo.miff mask.miff
7985897 gm composite -compose bumpmap -tile logo.png
7995898 cockatoo.miff mask.miff composite.miff
800-
801-
5899+\'
5900+\'
8025901 To composite a red, green, and blue color plane into a single composite image,
8035902 try
804-
5903+\'
8055904 gm composite -compose CopyGreen green.png red.png
8065905 red-green.png
8075906 gm composite -compose CopyBlue blue.png red-green.png
8085907 gm composite.png
809-
5908+\'
8105909 .SH OPTIONS
811-
5910+\'
8125911 Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on
8135912 the command line remains in effect only for the image that follows. All
8145913 options are reset to their default values after each image is read.
815-
5914+\'
8165915 For a more detailed description of each option, see
8175916 Options, above.
818-
5917+\'
8195918 .TP
8205919 .B "-authenticate \fI<string>"\fP
8215920 \fRdecrypt image with this password
@@ -1002,18 +6101,18 @@
10026101 .TP
10036102 .B "-write \fI<filename>"\fP
10046103 \fRwrite an intermediate image [\fIconvert, composite\fP]
1005-
6104+\'
10066105 For a more detailed description of each option, see
10076106 Options, above.
1008-
6107+\'
10096108 .SH GM CONJURE
1010-
6109+\'
10116110 The Magick scripting language (MSL) will primarily benefit those that
10126111 want to accomplish custom image processing tasks but do not wish to
10136112 program, or those that do not have access to a Perl interpreter or a
10146113 compiler. The interpreter is called conjure and here is an example
10156114 script:
1016-
6115+\'
10176116 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
10186117 <image size="400x400" >
10196118 <read filename="image.gif" />
@@ -1025,22 +6124,22 @@
10256124 to %[width]x%[height].\\n" />
10266125 <write filename="image.png" />
10276126 </image>
1028-
1029-
6127+\'
6128+\'
10306129 invoked with
1031-
6130+\'
10326131 gm conjure -dimensions 400x400 incantation.msl
1033-
1034-
6132+\'
6133+\'
10356134 All operations will closely follow the key/value pairs defined in
10366135 PerlMagick, unless otherwise noted.
10376136 .SH OPTIONS
1038-
6137+\'
10396138 Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on
10406139 the command line remains in effect until it is explicitly changed by specifying
10416140 the option again with a different effect, or if it is changed by a statement
10426141 in the scripting language.
1043-
6142+\'
10446143 You can define your own keyword/value pairs on the command line.
10456144 The script can then use this information when setting values by including
10466145 %[keyword] in the string. For example, if you included
@@ -1050,11 +6149,11 @@
10506149 The "%[string]" can be used either an entire string, such as
10516150 geometry="%[dimensions]" or as a part of a string such as
10526151 filename="%[basename].png".
1053-
6152+\'
10546153 The keyword can be any string except for the following reserved
10556154 strings (in any upper, lower, or mixed case variant): \fBdebug\fP,
10566155 \fBhelp\fP, and \fBverbose\fP, whose usage is described below.
1057-
6156+\'
10586157 The value can be any string. If
10596158 either the keyword or the value contains white space or any
10606159 symbols that have special meanings to your shell such as "#",
@@ -1062,15 +6161,15 @@
10626161 or
10636162 "%", enclose the string in quotation marks or use "\\" to escape the white
10646163 space and special symbols.
1065-
6164+\'
10666165 Keywords and values are case dependent. "Key",
10676166 "key",
10686167 and "KEY" would
10696168 be three different keywords.
1070-
6169+\'
10716170 For a more detailed description of each option, see
10726171 Options, above.
1073-
6172+\'
10746173 .TP
10756174 .B "-debug \fI<events>"\fP
10766175 \fRenable debug printout
@@ -1090,29 +6189,29 @@
10906189 .B "-version"
10916190 \fRprint GraphicsMagick version string
10926191 .SH MAGICK SCRIPTING LANGUAGE
1093-
6192+\'
10946193 The Magick Scripting Language (MSL) presently defines the following
10956194 elements and their attributes:
10966195 .in 15
1097-
6196+\'
10986197 .in 15
10996198 .B "<image>"
11006199 .in 20
1101-\fR
6200+ \fR
11026201 .in 20
11036202 background, color, id, size
11046203 .in 15
11056204 .in 20
1106-
6205+\'
11076206 Define a new image object. \fB</image>\fP destroys it. Because of
11086207 this, if you wish to reference multiple "subimages" (aka pages or
11096208 layers), you can embed one \fBimage\fP element inside of another. For
11106209 example:
1111-
1112-.in 15
1113-.in 20
1114-
1115-
6210+\'
6211+.in 15
6212+.in 20
6213+\'
6214+\'
11166215 <image>
11176216 <read filename="input.png" />
11186217 <get width="base-width" height="base-height" />
@@ -1120,44 +6219,44 @@
11206219 <image />
11216220 <write filename="output.mng" />
11226221 </image>
1123-
1124-
1125-.in 15
1126-.in 20
1127-
1128-
6222+\'
6223+\'
6224+.in 15
6225+.in 20
6226+\'
6227+\'
11296228 <image size="400x400" />
1130-
1131-
6229+\'
6230+\'
11326231 .in 15
11336232 .in 15
11346233 .B "<group>"
11356234 .in 20
1136-\fR
1137-.in 20
1138-
6235+ \fR
6236+.in 20
6237+\'
11396238 Define a new group of image objects. By default, images are only
11406239 valid for the life of their \fB<image>\fPelement.
1141-
1142-.in 15
1143-.in 20
1144-
1145-
6240+\'
6241+.in 15
6242+.in 20
6243+\'
6244+\'
11466245 <image> -- creates the image
11476246 ..... -- do stuff with it
11486247 </image> -- dispose of the image
1149-
1150-
1151-.in 15
1152-.in 20
1153-
6248+\'
6249+\'
6250+.in 15
6251+.in 20
6252+\'
11546253 However, in a group, all images in that group will stay around for the
11556254 life of the group:
1156-
1157-.in 15
1158-.in 20
1159-
1160-
6255+\'
6256+.in 15
6257+.in 20
6258+\'
6259+\'
11616260 <group> -- start a group
11626261 <image> -- create an image
11636262 .... -- do stuff
@@ -1167,79 +6266,79 @@
11676266 </image> -- NOOP
11686267 <write filename="image.mng" /> -- output
11696268 </group> -- dispose of both images
1170-
1171-
6269+\'
6270+\'
11726271 .in 15
11736272 .in 15
11746273 .B "<read>"
11756274 .in 20
1176-\fR
6275+ \fR
11776276 .in 20
11786277 filename
11796278 .in 15
11806279 .in 20
1181-
6280+\'
11826281 Read a new image from a disk file.
1183-
1184-.in 15
1185-.in 20
1186-
1187-
6282+\'
6283+.in 15
6284+.in 20
6285+\'
6286+\'
11886287 <read filename="image.gif" />
1189-
1190-
1191-.in 15
1192-.in 20
1193-
6288+\'
6289+\'
6290+.in 15
6291+.in 20
6292+\'
11946293 To read two images use
1195-
1196-.in 15
1197-.in 20
1198-
1199-
6294+\'
6295+.in 15
6296+.in 20
6297+\'
6298+\'
12006299 <read filename="image.gif" />
12016300 <read filename="image.png />
1202-
1203-
6301+\'
6302+\'
12046303 .in 15
12056304 .in 15
12066305 .B "<write>"
12076306 .in 20
1208-\fR
6307+ \fR
12096308 .in 20
12106309 filename
12116310 .in 15
12126311 .in 20
12136312 Write the image(s) to disk, either as
12146313 a single multiple-image file or multiple ones if necessary.
1215-
1216-.in 15
1217-.in 20
1218-
1219-
6314+\'
6315+.in 15
6316+.in 20
6317+\'
6318+\'
12206319 <write filename=image.tiff" />
1221-
6320+\'
12226321 .in 15
12236322 .B "<get>"
12246323 .in 20
1225-\fR
6324+ \fR
12266325 .in 20
12276326 Get any attribute recognized by
12286327 PerlMagick's GetAttribute() and stores it as an image attribute for later
12296328 use. Currently only \fIwidth\fP and \fIheight\fP are supported.
12306329 .in 15
12316330 .in 20
1232-
1233-
6331+\'
6332+\'
12346333 <get width="base-width" height="base-height" />
12356334 <print output="Image size is %[base-width]x%[base-height].\\n" />
1236-
1237-
6335+\'
6336+\'
12386337 .in 15
12396338 .in 15
12406339 .B "<set>"
12416340 .in 20
1242-\fR
6341+ \fR
12436342 .in 20
12446343 background, bordercolor, clip-mask, colorspace, density,
12456344 magick, mattecolor, opacity. Set an attribute recognized by
@@ -1248,79 +6347,79 @@
12486347 .in 15
12496348 .B "<profile>"
12506349 .in 20
1251-\fR
6350+ \fR
12526351 .in 20
12536352 [profilename]
12546353 .in 15
12556354 .in 20
1256-
6355+\'
12576356 Read one or more IPTC, ICC or generic profiles from file and assign to image
1258-
1259-.in 15
1260-.in 20
1261-
1262-
6357+\'
6358+.in 15
6359+.in 20
6360+\'
6361+\'
12636362 <profile iptc="profile.iptc" generic="generic.dat" />
1264-
1265-
1266-.in 15
1267-.in 20
1268-
6363+\'
6364+\'
6365+.in 15
6366+.in 20
6367+\'
12696368 To remove a specified profile use "!" as the filename eg
1270-
1271-.in 15
1272-.in 20
1273-
1274-
6369+\'
6370+.in 15
6371+.in 20
6372+\'
6373+\'
12756374 <profile icm="!" iptc="profile.iptc" />
1276-
1277-
6375+\'
6376+\'
12786377 .in 15
12796378 .in 15
12806379 .B "<border>"
12816380 .in 20
1282-\fR
6381+ \fR
12836382 .in 20
12846383 fill, geometry, height, width
12856384 .in 15
12866385 .in 15
12876386 .B "<blur>"
12886387 .in 20
1289-\fR
6388+ \fR
12906389 .in 20
12916390 radius, sigma
12926391 .in 15
12936392 .in 15
12946393 .B "<charcoal>"
12956394 .in 20
1296-\fR
6395+ \fR
12976396 .in 20
12986397 radius, sigma
12996398 .in 15
13006399 .in 15
13016400 .B "<chop>"
13026401 .in 20
1303-\fR
6402+ \fR
13046403 .in 20
13056404 geometry, height, width, x, y
13066405 .in 15
13076406 .in 15
13086407 .B "<crop>"
13096408 .in 20
1310-\fR
6409+ \fR
13116410 .in 20
13126411 geometry, height, width, x, y
13136412 .in 15
13146413 .in 15
13156414 .B "<composite>"
13166415 .in 20
1317-\fR
6416+ \fR
13186417 .in 20
13196418 compose, geometry, gravity, image, x, y
13206419 .in 15
13216420 .in 20
1322-
1323-
6421+\'
6422+\'
13246423 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
13256424 <group>
13266425 <image id="image_01">
@@ -1338,350 +6437,350 @@
13386437 </image>
13396438 <write filename="result.png"/>
13406439 </group>
1341-
1342-
6440+\'
6441+\'
13436442 .in 15
13446443 .in 15
13456444 .B "<despeckle>"
13466445 .in 20
1347-\fR
6446+ \fR
13486447 .in 15
13496448 .B "<emboss>"
13506449 .in 20
1351-\fR
6450+ \fR
13526451 .in 20
13536452 radius, sigma
13546453 .in 15
13556454 .in 15
13566455 .B "<enhance>"
13576456 .in 20
1358-\fR
6457+ \fR
13596458 .in 15
13606459 .B "<equalize>"
13616460 .in 20
1362-\fR
6461+ \fR
13636462 .in 15
13646463 .B "<edge>"
13656464 .in 20
1366-\fR
6465+ \fR
13676466 .in 20
13686467 radius
13696468 .in 15
13706469 .in 15
13716470 .B "<flip>"
13726471 .in 20
1373-\fR
6472+ \fR
13746473 .in 15
13756474 .B "<flop>"
13766475 .in 20
1377-\fR
6476+ \fR
13786477 .in 15
13796478 .B "<frame>"
13806479 .in 20
1381-\fR
6480+ \fR
13826481 .in 20
13836482 fill, geometry, height, width, x, y, inner, outer
13846483 .in 15
13856484 .in 15
13866485 .B "<flatten>"
13876486 .in 20
1388-\fR
6487+ \fR
13896488 .in 15
13906489 .B "<get>"
13916490 .in 20
1392-\fR
6491+ \fR
13936492 .in 20
13946493 height, width
13956494 .in 15
13966495 .in 15
13976496 .B "<gamma>"
13986497 .in 20
1399-\fR
6498+ \fR
14006499 .in 20
14016500 red, green, blue
14026501 .in 15
14036502 .in 15
14046503 .B "<image>"
14056504 .in 20
1406-\fR
6505+ \fR
14076506 .in 20
14086507 background, color, id, size
14096508 .in 15
14106509 .in 15
14116510 .B "<implode>"
14126511 .in 20
1413-\fR
6512+ \fR
14146513 .in 20
14156514 amount
14166515 .in 15
14176516 .in 15
14186517 .B "<magnify>"
14196518 .in 20
1420-\fR
6519+ \fR
14216520 .in 15
14226521 .B "<minify>"
14236522 .in 20
1424-\fR
6523+ \fR
14256524 .in 15
14266525 .B "<medianfilter>"
14276526 .in 20
1428-\fR
6527+ \fR
14296528 .in 20
14306529 radius
14316530 .in 15
14326531 .in 15
14336532 .B "<normalize>"
14346533 .in 20
1435-\fR
6534+ \fR
14366535 .in 15
14376536 .B "<oilpaint>"
14386537 .in 20
1439-\fR
6538+ \fR
14406539 .in 20
14416540 radius
14426541 .in 15
14436542 .in 15
14446543 .B "<print>"
14456544 .in 20
1446-\fR
6545+ \fR
14476546 .in 20
14486547 output
14496548 .in 15
14506549 .in 15
14516550 .B "<profile>"
14526551 .in 20
1453-\fR
6552+ \fR
14546553 .in 20
14556554 [profilename]
14566555 .in 15
14576556 .in 15
14586557 .B "<read>"
14596558 .in 20
1460-\fR
6559+ \fR
14616560 .in 15
14626561 .B "<resize>"
14636562 .in 20
1464-\fR
6563+ \fR
14656564 .in 20
14666565 blur, filter, geometry, height, width
14676566 .in 15
14686567 .in 15
14696568 .B "<roll>"
14706569 .in 20
1471-\fR
6570+ \fR
14726571 .in 20
14736572 geometry, x, y
14746573 .in 15
14756574 .in 15
14766575 .B "<rotate>"
14776576 .in 20
1478-\fR
6577+ \fR
14796578 .in 20
14806579 degrees
14816580 .in 15
14826581 .in 15
14836582 .B "<reducenoise>"
14846583 .in 20
1485-\fR
6584+ \fR
14866585 .in 20
14876586 radius
14886587 .in 15
14896588 .in 15
14906589 .B "<sample>"
14916590 .in 20
1492-\fR
6591+ \fR
14936592 .in 20
14946593 geometry, height, width
14956594 .in 15
14966595 .in 15
14976596 .B "<scale>"
14986597 .in 20
1499-\fR
6598+ \fR
15006599 .in 20
15016600 geometry, height, width
15026601 .in 15
15036602 .in 15
15046603 .B "<sharpen>"
15056604 .in 20
1506-\fR
6605+ \fR
15076606 .in 20
15086607 radius, sigma
15096608 .in 15
15106609 .in 15
15116610 .B "<shave>"
15126611 .in 20
1513-\fR
6612+ \fR
15146613 .in 20
15156614 geometry, height, width
15166615 .in 15
15176616 .in 15
15186617 .B "<shear>"
15196618 .in 20
1520-\fR
6619+ \fR
15216620 .in 20
15226621 x, y
15236622 .in 15
15246623 .in 15
15256624 .B "<solarize>"
15266625 .in 20
1527-\fR
6626+ \fR
15286627 .in 20
15296628 threshold
15306629 .in 15
15316630 .in 15
15326631 .B "<spread>"
15336632 .in 20
1534-\fR
6633+ \fR
15356634 .in 20
15366635 radius
15376636 .in 15
15386637 .in 15
15396638 .B "<stegano>"
15406639 .in 20
1541-\fR
6640+ \fR
15426641 .in 20
15436642 image
15446643 .in 15
15456644 .in 15
15466645 .B "<stereo>"
15476646 .in 20
1548-\fR
6647+ \fR
15496648 .in 20
15506649 image
15516650 .in 15
15526651 .in 15
15536652 .B "<swirl>"
15546653 .in 20
1555-\fR
6654+ \fR
15566655 .in 20
15576656 degrees
15586657 .in 15
15596658 .in 15
15606659 .B "<texture>"
15616660 .in 20
1562-\fR
6661+ \fR
15636662 .in 20
15646663 image
15656664 .in 15
15666665 .in 15
15676666 .B "<threshold>"
15686667 .in 20
1569-\fR
6668+ \fR
15706669 .in 20
15716670 threshold
15726671 .in 15
15736672 .in 15
15746673 .B "<transparent>"
15756674 .in 20
1576-\fR
6675+ \fR
15776676 .in 20
15786677 color
15796678 .in 15
15806679 .in 15
15816680 .B "<trim>"
15826681 .in 20
1583-\fR
1584-
6682+ \fR
6683+\'
15856684 .SH GM CONVERT
1586-
6685+\'
15876686 \fBConvert\fP converts an input file using one image format to an output
15886687 file with a differing image format. In addition, various types of image
15896688 processing can be performed on the converted image during the conversion
15906689 process. \fBConvert\fP recognizes the image formats listed in
15916690 \fIGraphicsMagick(1)\fP.
1592-
6691+\'
15936692 .SH EXAMPLES
1594-
6693+\'
15956694 To make a thumbnail of a JPEG image, use:
1596-
6695+\'
15976696 gm convert -size 120x120 cockatoo.jpg -resize 120x120
15986697 +profile "*" thumbnail.jpg
1599-
1600-
6698+\'
6699+\'
16016700 In this example, '-size 120x120' gives a hint to the JPEG decoder
16026701 that the image is going to be downscaled to 120x120, allowing it to run
16036702 faster by avoiding returning full-resolution images to GraphicsMagick for
16046703 the subsequent resizing operation. The
1605-\'-resize 120x120' specifies the desired dimensions of the
6704+'-resize 120x120' specifies the desired dimensions of the
16066705 output image. It will be scaled so its largest dimension is 120 pixels. The
1607-\'+profile "*"' removes any ICM, EXIF, IPTC, or other profiles
6706+'+profile "*"' removes any ICM, EXIF, IPTC, or other profiles
16086707 that might be present in the input and aren't needed in the thumbnail.
1609-
6708+\'
16106709 To convert a \fIMIFF\fP image of a cockatoo to a SUN raster image, use:
1611-
6710+\'
16126711 gm convert cockatoo.miff sun:cockatoo.ras
1613-
1614-
6712+\'
6713+\'
16156714 To convert a multi-page \fIPostScript\fP document to individual FAX pages,
16166715 use:
1617-
6716+\'
16186717 gm convert -monochrome document.ps fax:page
1619-
1620-
6718+\'
6719+\'
16216720 To convert a TIFF image to a \fIPostScript\fP A4 page with the image in
16226721 the lower left-hand corner, use:
1623-
6722+\'
16246723 gm convert -page A4+0+0 image.tiff document.ps
1625-
1626-
6724+\'
6725+\'
16276726 To convert a raw Gray image with a 128 byte header to a portable graymap,
16286727 use:
1629-
6728+\'
16306729 gm convert -depth 8 -size 768x512+128 gray:raw
16316730 image.pgm
1632-
1633-
6731+\'
6732+\'
16346733 In this example, "raw" is the input file. Its format is "gray" and it
16356734 has the dimensions and number of header bytes specified by the -size
16366735 option and the sample depth specified by the
16376736 -depth option. The output file is "image.pgm". The suffix ".pgm"
16386737 specifies its format.
1639-
6738+\'
16406739 To convert a Photo CD image to a TIFF image, use:
1641-
6740+\'
16426741 gm convert -size 1536x1024 img0009.pcd image.tiff
16436742 gm convert img0009.pcd[4] image.tiff
1644-
1645-
6743+\'
6744+\'
16466745 To create a visual image directory of all your JPEG images, use:
1647-
6746+\'
16486747 gm convert 'vid:*.jpg' directory.miff
1649-
1650-
6748+\'
6749+\'
16516750 To annotate an image with blue text using font 12x24 at position (100,100),
16526751 use:
1653-
6752+\'
16546753 gm convert -font helvetica -fill blue
16556754 -draw "text 100,100 Cockatoo"
16566755 bird.jpg bird.miff
1657-
1658-
6756+\'
6757+\'
16596758 To tile a 640x480 image with a JPEG texture with bumps use:
1660-
6759+\'
16616760 gm convert -size 640x480 tile:bumps.jpg tiled.png
1662-
1663-
6761+\'
6762+\'
16646763 To surround an icon with an ornamental border to use with Mosaic(1), use:
1665-
6764+\'
16666765 gm convert -mattecolor "#697B8F" -frame 6x6 bird.jpg
16676766 icon.png
1668-
1669-
6767+\'
6768+\'
16706769 To create a MNG animation from a DNA molecule sequence, use:
1671-
6770+\'
16726771 gm convert -delay 20 dna.* dna.mng
1673-
6772+\'
16746773 .SH OPTIONS
1675-
6774+\'
16766775 Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on
16776776 the command line remains in effect for the set of images that follows,
16786777 until the set is terminated by the appearance of any option or \fB-noop\fP.
16796778 Some options only affect the decoding of images and others only the encoding.
16806779 The latter can appear after the final group of input images.
1681-
6780+\'
16826781 For a more detailed description of each option, see
16836782 Options, above.
1684-
6783+\'
16856784 .TP
16866785 .B "-adjoin"
16876786 \fRjoin images into a single multi-image file
@@ -2141,11 +7240,11 @@
21417240 .TP
21427241 .B "-write \fI<filename>"\fP
21437242 \fRwrite an intermediate image [\fIconvert, composite\fP]
2144-
7243+\'
21457244 For a more detailed description of each option, see
21467245 Options, above.
21477246 .SH GM DISPLAY
2148-
7247+\'
21497248 Display is a machine architecture independent
21507249 image processing and display program. It can display an image on any workstation
21517250 screen running an X server. \fBDisplay\fP can read and write
@@ -2155,10 +7254,10 @@
21557254 \fBPNM\fP,
21567255 \fBPhoto
21577256 CD\fP, etc.).
2158-
7257+\'
21597258 With \fBdisplay\fP, you can perform these functions on an image:
21607259 .in 15
2161-
7260+\'
21627261 o load an image from a file
21637262 o display the next image
21647263 o display the former image
@@ -2222,66 +7321,66 @@
22227321 o discard all images and exit program
22237322 o change the level of magnification
22247323 o display images specified by a World Wide Web (WWW) uniform resource locator (URL)
2225-
7324+\'
22267325 .SH EXAMPLES
2227-
7326+\'
22287327 To scale an image of a cockatoo to exactly 640 pixels in width and 480
22297328 pixels in height and position the window at location (200,200), use:
2230-
7329+\'
22317330 gm display -geometry 640x480+200+200! cockatoo.miff
2232-
2233-
7331+\'
7332+\'
22347333 To display an image of a cockatoo without a border centered on a backdrop,
22357334 use:
2236-
7335+\'
22377336 gm display +borderwidth -backdrop cockatoo.miff
2238-
2239-
7337+\'
7338+\'
22407339 To tile a slate texture onto the root window, use:
2241-
7340+\'
22427341 gm display -size 1280x1024 -window root slate.png
2243-
2244-
7342+\'
7343+\'
22457344 To display a visual image directory of all your JPEG images, use:
2246-
7345+\'
22477346 gm display 'vid:*.jpg'
2248-
2249-
7347+\'
7348+\'
22507349 To display a MAP image that is 640 pixels in width and 480 pixels in height
22517350 with 256 colors, use:
2252-
7351+\'
22537352 gm display -size 640x480+256 cockatoo.map
2254-
2255-
7353+\'
7354+\'
22567355 To display an image of a cockatoo specified with a \fBWorld Wide Web (WWW)\fP
22577356 uniform resource locator \fB(URL)\fP, use:
2258-
7357+\'
22597358 gm display ftp://wizards.dupont.com/images/cockatoo.jpg
2260-
2261-
7359+\'
7360+\'
22627361 To display histogram of an image, use:
2263-
7362+\'
22647363 gm gm convert file.jpg HISTOGRAM:- | gm display -
2265-
7364+\'
22667365 .SH OPTIONS
2267-
7366+\'
22687367 Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on
22697368 the command line remains in effect until it is explicitly changed by specifying
22707369 the option again with a different effect. For example to display three images,
22717370 the first with 32 colors, the second with an unlimited number of colors,
22727371 and the third with only 16 colors, use:
2273-
7372+\'
22747373 gm display -colors 32 cockatoo.miff -noop duck.miff
22757374 -colors 16 macaw.miff
2276-
2277-
7375+\'
7376+\'
22787377 \fBDisplay\fP options can appear on the command line or in your X resources
22797378 file. See \fIX(1)\fP. Options on the command line supersede values specified
22807379 in your X resources file.
2281-
7380+\'
22827381 For a more detailed description of each option, see
22837382 Options, above.
2284-
7383+\'
22857384 .TP
22867385 .B "-authenticate \fI<string>"\fP
22877386 \fRdecrypt image with this password
@@ -2523,12 +7622,12 @@
25237622 .TP
25247623 .B "-write \fI<filename>"\fP
25257624 \fRwrite the image to a file [\fIdisplay\fP]
2526-
7625+\'
25277626 For a more detailed description of each option, see
25287627 Options, above.
2529-
7628+\'
25307629 .SH MOUSE BUTTONS
2531-
7630+\'
25327631 The effects of each button press is described below. Three buttons are
25337632 required. If you have a two button mouse, button 1 and 3 are returned.
25347633 Press \fBALT\fP and button 3 to simulate button 2.
@@ -2550,14 +7649,14 @@
25507649 is a visual image directory. Choose a particular tile of the directory
25517650 and press this button and drag to select a command from a pop-up menu.
25527651 Choose from these menu items:
2553-
7652+\'
25547653 Open
25557654 Next
25567655 Former
25577656 Delete
25587657 Update
2559-
2560-
7658+\'
7659+\'
25617660 If you choose \fBOpen\fP, the image represented by the tile is displayed.
25627661 To return to the visual image directory, choose \fBNext\fP from the Command
25637662 widget (refer to Command Widget).
@@ -2569,11 +7668,11 @@
25697668 and
25707669 miff for more details.
25717670 .SH COMMAND WIDGET
2572-
7671+\'
25737672 The Command widget lists a number of sub-menus and commands. They are
2574-
7673+\'
25757674 \fBFile\fP
2576-
7675+\'
25777676 Open...
25787677 Next
25797678 Former
@@ -2584,21 +7683,21 @@
25847683 Canvas...
25857684 Visual Directory...
25867685 Quit
2587-
2588-
2589-
7686+\'
7687+\'
7688+\'
25907689 \fBEdit\fP
2591-
7690+\'
25927691 Undo
25937692 Redo
25947693 Cut
25957694 Copy
25967695 Paste
2597-
2598-
2599-
7696+\'
7697+\'
7698+\'
26007699 \fBView\fP
2601-
7700+\'
26027701 Half Size
26037702 Original Size
26047703 Double Size
@@ -2606,11 +7705,11 @@
26067705 Apply
26077706 Refresh
26087707 Restore
2609-
2610-
2611-
7708+\'
7709+\'
7710+\'
26127711 \fBTransform\fP
2613-
7712+\'
26147713 Crop
26157714 Chop
26167715 Flop
@@ -2621,11 +7720,11 @@
26217720 Shear...
26227721 Roll...
26237722 Trim Edges
2624-
2625-
2626-
7723+\'
7724+\'
7725+\'
26277726 \fBEnhance\fP
2628-
7727+\'
26297728 Hue...
26307729 Saturation...
26317730 Brightness...
@@ -2637,11 +7736,11 @@
26377736 Negate
26387737 GRAYscale
26397738 Quantize...
2640-
2641-
2642-
7739+\'
7740+\'
7741+\'
26437742 \fBEffects\fP
2644-
7743+\'
26457744 Despeckle
26467745 Emboss
26477746 Reduce Noise
@@ -2654,22 +7753,22 @@
26547753 Shade...
26557754 Raise...
26567755 Segment...
2657-
2658-
2659-
7756+\'
7757+\'
7758+\'
26607759 \fBF/X\fP
2661-
7760+\'
26627761 Solarize...
26637762 Swirl...
26647763 Implode...
26657764 Wave...
26667765 Oil Paint...
26677766 Charcoal Draw...
2668-
2669-
2670-
7767+\'
7768+\'
7769+\'
26717770 \fBImage Edit\fP
2672-
7771+\'
26737772 Annotate...
26747773 Draw...
26757774 Color...
@@ -2680,11 +7779,11 @@
26807779 Comment...
26817780 Launch...
26827781 Region of Interest...
2683-
2684-
2685-
7782+\'
7783+\'
7784+\'
26867785 \fBMiscellany\fP
2687-
7786+\'
26887787 Image Info
26897788 Zoom Image
26907789 Show Preview...
@@ -2693,17 +7792,17 @@
26937792 Background...
26947793 Slide Show
26957794 Preferences...
2696-
2697-
2698-
7795+\'
7796+\'
7797+\'
26997798 \fBHelp\fP
2700-
7799+\'
27017800 Overview
27027801 Browse Documentation
27037802 About Display
2704-
2705-
2706-
7803+\'
7804+\'
7805+\'
27077806 Menu items with a indented triangle have a sub-menu. They are represented
27087807 above as the indented items. To access a sub-menu item, move the pointer
27097808 to the appropriate menu and press button 1 and drag. When you find the
@@ -2711,30 +7810,30 @@
27117810 Move the pointer away from the sub-menu if you decide not to execute a
27127811 particular command.
27137812 .SH KEYBOARD ACCELERATORS
2714-
7813+\'
27157814 Accelerators are one or two key presses that effect a particular command.
27167815 The keyboard accelerators that
27177816 \fBdisplay\fP understands is:
2718-
7817+\'
27197818 Ctl+O Press to load an image from a file.
27207819 space Press to display the next image.
2721-
2722-
7820+\'
7821+\'
27237822 If the image is a multi-paged document such as a
27247823 \fIPostScript\fP document,
27257824 you can skip ahead several pages by preceding this command with a number.
27267825 For example to display the fourth page beyond the current page,
27277826 press 4space.
2728-
7827+\'
27297828 backspace Press to display the former image.
2730-
2731-
7829+\'
7830+\'
27327831 If the image is a multi-paged document such as a
27337832 \fIPostScript\fP document,
27347833 you can skip behind several pages by preceding this command with a number.
27357834 For example to display the fourth page preceding the current page, press
27367835 4n.
2737-
7836+\'
27387837 Ctl-S Press to save the image to a file.
27397838 Ctl-P Press to print the image to a
27407839 \fIPostScript\fP printer.
@@ -2834,20 +7933,20 @@
28347933 Find Press to browse documentation about
28357934 GraphicsMagick.
28367935 1-9 Press to change the level of magnification.
2837-
2838-
7936+\'
7937+\'
28397938 Use the arrow keys to move the image one pixel up, down, left, or right
28407939 within the magnify window. Be sure to first map the magnify window by pressing
28417940 button 2.
2842-
7941+\'
28437942 Press ALT and one of the arrow keys to trim off one pixel from any side
28447943 of the image.
28457944 .SH X RESOURCES
2846-
7945+\'
28477946 \fBDisplay\fP options can appear on the command line or in your X resource
28487947 file. Options on the command line supersede values specified in your X
28497948 resource file. See \fIX(1)\fP for more information on X resources.
2850-
7949+\'
28517950 Most \fBdisplay\fP options have a corresponding X resource. In addition,
28527951 \fBdisplay\fP
28537952 uses the following X resources:
@@ -2919,7 +8018,7 @@
29198018 \fR
29208019 Specifies the preferred size and position of the image window. It is not
29218020 necessarily obeyed by all window managers.
2922-
8021+\'
29238022 Offsets, if present, are handled in \fIX(1)\fP style. A negative x offset is
29248023 measured from the right edge of the screen to the right edge of the icon,
29258024 and a negative y offset is measured from the bottom edge of the screen
@@ -2929,7 +8028,7 @@
29298028 \fR
29308029 Specifies the preferred size and position of the application when iconified.
29318030 It is not necessarily obeyed by all window managers.
2932-
8031+\'
29338032 Offsets, if present, are handled in the same manner as in class Geometry.
29348033 .TP
29358034 .B "iconic \fI(class Iconic)"\fP
@@ -3005,14 +8104,14 @@
30058104 exceeds the dimensions of your server screen and you intend to pan the
30068105 image. Panning is much faster with Pixmaps than with a XImage. Pixmaps
30078106 are considered a precious resource, use them with discretion.
3008-
8107+\'
30098108 To set the geometry of the Magnify or Pan or window, use the geometry resource.
30108109 For example, to set the Pan window geometry to 256x256, use:
3011-
8110+\'
30128111 gm display.pan.geometry: 256x256
3013-
8112+\'
30148113 .SH IMAGE LOADING
3015-
8114+\'
30168115 To select an image to display, choose \fBOpen\fP of the \fBFile\fP sub-menu
30178116 from the Command widget. A file browser is displayed.
30188117 To choose a particular image file, move the pointer to the filename and
@@ -3023,15 +8122,15 @@
30238122 name and press the button twice quickly. A scrollbar allows a large list
30248123 of filenames to be moved through the viewing area if it exceeds the size
30258124 of the list area.
3026-
8125+\'
30278126 You can trim the list of file names by using shell globbing characters.
30288127 For example, type *.jpg to list only files that end
30298128 with .jpg.
3030-
8129+\'
30318130 To select your image from the X server screen instead of from a file, Choose
30328131 \fBGrab\fP of the \fBOpen\fP widget.
30338132 .SH VISUAL IMAGE DIRECTORY
3034-
8133+\'
30358134 To create a Visual Image Directory, choose Visual Directory of the \fBFile\fP
30368135 sub-menu from the Command widget . A file browser is
30378136 displayed. To create a Visual Image Directory from all the images in the
@@ -3042,7 +8141,7 @@
30428141 and press the button twice quickly. A scrollbar allows a large list of
30438142 filenames to be moved through the viewing area if it exceeds the size of
30448143 the list area.
3045-
8144+\'
30468145 After you select a set of files, they are turned into thumbnails and tiled
30478146 onto a single image. Now move the pointer to a particular thumbnail and
30488147 press \fBbutton 3\fP and drag. Finally, select Open. The image represented
@@ -3050,83 +8149,83 @@
30508149 the \fBFile\fP sub-menu of the Command widget to return to the Visual
30518150 Image Directory.
30528151 .SH IMAGE CUTTING
3053-
8152+\'
30548153 Note that cut information for image window is not retained for colormapped
30558154 X server visuals (e.g. \fIStaticColor\fP,
30568155 \fIStaticColor\fP, \fIGRAYScale\fP,
30578156 \fIPseudoColor\fP).
30588157 Correct cutting behavior may require a \fITrueColor\fP or \fIDirectColor\fP
30598158 visual or a \fIStandard Colormap\fP.
3060-
8159+\'
30618160 To begin, press choose \fBCut\fP of the \fBEdit\fP sub-menu from the
30628161 Command
30638162 widget. Alternatively, press
30648163 \fBF3\fP in the image window.
3065-
8164+\'
30668165 A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
30678166 window. You are now in cut mode. In cut mode, the Command widget has these
30688167 options:
3069-
8168+\'
30708169 \fBHelp\fP
30718170 \fBDismiss\fP
3072-
3073-
8171+\'
8172+\'
30748173 To define a cut region, press button 1 and drag. The cut region is defined
30758174 by a highlighted rectangle that expands or contracts as it follows the
30768175 pointer. Once you are satisfied with the cut region, release the button.
30778176 You are now in rectify mode. In rectify mode, the Command widget has these
30788177 options:
3079-
8178+\'
30808179 \fBCut\fP
30818180 \fBHelp\fP
30828181 \fBDismiss\fP
3083-
3084-
8182+\'
8183+\'
30858184 You can make adjustments by moving the pointer to one of the cut rectangle
30868185 corners, pressing a button, and dragging. Finally, press Cut to commit
30878186 your copy region. To exit without cutting the image, press Dismiss.
30888187 .SH IMAGE COPYING
3089-
8188+\'
30908189 To begin, press choose \fBCopy\fP of the \fBEdit\fP sub-menu from the
30918190 Command
30928191 widget. Alternatively, press
30938192 \fBF4\fP in the image window.
3094-
8193+\'
30958194 A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
30968195 window. You are now in copy mode. In copy mode, the Command widget has
30978196 these options:
3098-
8197+\'
30998198 Help
31008199 Dismiss
3101-
3102-
8200+\'
8201+\'
31038202 To define a copy region, press button 1 and drag. The copy region is defined
31048203 by a highlighted rectangle that expands or contracts as it follows the
31058204 pointer. Once you are satisfied with the copy region, release the button.
31068205 You are now in rectify mode. In rectify mode, the Command widget has these
31078206 options:
3108-
8207+\'
31098208 Copy
31108209 Help
31118210 Dismiss
3112-
3113-
8211+\'
8212+\'
31148213 You can make adjustments by moving the pointer to one of the copy rectangle
31158214 corners, pressing a button, and dragging. Finally, press Copy to commit
31168215 your copy region. To exit without copying the image, press Dismiss.
31178216 .SH IMAGE PASTING
3118-
8217+\'
31198218 To begin, press choose \fBPaste\fP of the \fBEdit\fP sub-menu from the
31208219 Command
31218220 widget. Alternatively, press
31228221 \fBF5\fP in the image window.
3123-
8222+\'
31248223 A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
31258224 window. You are now in Paste mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss.
31268225 In Paste mode, the Command widget has these options:
3127-
8226+\'
31288227 \fBOperators\fP
3129-
8228+\'
31308229 over
31318230 in
31328231 out
@@ -3140,11 +8239,11 @@
31408239 multiply
31418240 bumpmap
31428241 replace
3143-
8242+\'
31448243 \fBHelp\fP
31458244 \fBDismiss\fP
3146-
3147-
8245+\'
8246+\'
31488247 Choose a composite operation from the \fBOperators\fP sub-menu of the
31498248 Command
31508249 widget. How each operator behaves is described below. \fIimage window\fP
@@ -3224,7 +8323,7 @@
32248323 \fRThe resulting image is \fIimage window\fP replaced with
32258324 \fIimage\fP.
32268325 Here the matte information is ignored.
3227-
8326+\'
32288327 The image compositor requires a matte, or alpha channel in the image for
32298328 some operations. This extra channel usually defines a mask which represents
32308329 a sort of a cookie-cutter for the image. This is the case when matte is
@@ -3233,18 +8332,18 @@
32338332 is initialized with 0 for any pixel matching in color to pixel location
32348333 (0,0), otherwise 255. See Matte Editing for a method
32358334 of defining a matte channel.
3236-
8335+\'
32378336 Note that matte information for image window is not retained for colormapped
32388337 X server visuals (e.g. \fIStaticColor, StaticColor, GrayScale, PseudoColor\fP).
32398338 Correct compositing behavior may require a
32408339 \fITrueColor\fP or \fIDirectColor\fP
32418340 visual or a \fIStandard Colormap\fP.
3242-
8341+\'
32438342 Choosing a composite operator is optional. The default operator is replace.
32448343 However, you must choose a location to composite your image and press button
32458344 1. Press and hold the button before releasing and an outline of the image
32468345 will appear to help you identify your location.
3247-
8346+\'
32488347 The actual colors of the pasted image is saved. However, the color that
32498348 appears in image window may be different. For example, on a monochrome
32508349 screen image window will appear black or white even though your pasted
@@ -3255,80 +8354,80 @@
32558354 \fIPseudoClass\fP image to remain \fIPseudoClass\fP,
32568355 use \fB-colors\fP.
32578356 .SH IMAGE CROPPING
3258-
8357+\'
32598358 To begin, press choose \fBCrop\fP of the \fBTransform\fP submenu from
32608359 the Command widget. Alternatively,
32618360 press C in the image window.
3262-
8361+\'
32638362 A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
32648363 window. You are now in crop mode. In crop mode, the Command widget has
32658364 these options:
3266-
8365+\'
32678366 \fBHelp\fP
32688367 \fBDismiss\fP
3269-
3270-
8368+\'
8369+\'
32718370 To define a cropping region, press button 1 and drag. The cropping region
32728371 is defined by a highlighted rectangle that expands or contracts as it follows
32738372 the pointer. Once you are satisfied with the cropping region, release the
32748373 button. You are now in rectify mode. In rectify mode, the Command widget
32758374 has these options:
3276-
8375+\'
32778376 \fBCrop\fP
32788377 \fBHelp\fP
32798378 \fBDismiss\fP
3280-
3281-
8379+\'
8380+\'
32828381 You can make adjustments by moving the pointer to one of the cropping rectangle
32838382 corners, pressing a button, and dragging. Finally, press Crop to commit
32848383 your cropping region. To exit without cropping the image, press Dismiss.
32858384 .SH IMAGE CHOPPING
3286-
8385+\'
32878386 An image is chopped interactively. There is no command line argument to
32888387 chop an image. To begin, choose \fBChop\fP of the \fBTransform\fP sub-menu
32898388 from the Command widget. Alternatively,
32908389 press [ in the Image window.
3291-
8390+\'
32928391 You are now in \fBChop\fP mode. To exit immediately, press
32938392 \fBDismiss\fP.
32948393 In Chop mode, the Command widget has these options:
3295-
8394+\'
32968395 \fBDirection\fP
3297-
8396+\'
32988397 horizontal
32998398 vertical
3300-
8399+\'
33018400 \fBHelp\fP
33028401 \fBDismiss\fP
3303-
3304-
8402+\'
8403+\'
33058404 If the you choose the horizontal direction (this is the default), the area
33068405 of the image between the two horizontal endpoints of the chop line is removed.
33078406 Otherwise, the area of the image between the two vertical endpoints of
33088407 the chop line is removed.
3309-
8408+\'
33108409 Select a location within the image window to begin your chop, press and
33118410 hold any button. Next, move the pointer to another location in the image.
33128411 As you move a line will connect the initial location and the pointer. When
33138412 you release the button, the area within the image to chop is determined
33148413 by which direction you choose from the Command widget.
3315-
8414+\'
33168415 To cancel the image chopping, move the pointer back to the starting point
33178416 of the line and release the button.
33188417 .SH IMAGE ROTATION
3319-
8418+\'
33208419 Press the / key to rotate the image 90 degrees or \\ to rotate -90 degrees.
33218420 To interactively choose the degree of rotation, choose
33228421 \fBRotate...\fP
33238422 of the \fBTransform\fP submenu from the Command Widget.
33248423 Alternatively, press * in the image window.
3325-
8424+\'
33268425 A small horizontal line is drawn next to the pointer. You are now in rotate
33278426 mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss. In rotate mode, the Command widget
33288427 has these options:
3329-
8428+\'
33308429 \fBPixel Color\fP
3331-
8430+\'
33328431 black
33338432 blue
33348433 cyan
@@ -3339,48 +8438,48 @@
33398438 yellow
33408439 white
33418440 Browser...
3342-
8441+\'
33438442 \fBDirection\fP
3344-
8443+\'
33458444 horizontal
33468445 vertical
3347-
8446+\'
33488447 \fBHelp\fP
33498448 \fBDismiss\fP
3350-
3351-
8449+\'
8450+\'
33528451 Choose a background color from the Pixel Color sub-menu. Additional background
33538452 colors can be specified with the color browser. You can change the menu
33548453 colors by setting the X resources pen1 through pen9.
3355-
8454+\'
33568455 If you choose the color browser and press \fBGrab\fP, you can select the
33578456 background color by moving the pointer to the desired color on the screen
33588457 and press any button.
3359-
8458+\'
33608459 Choose a point in the image window and press this button and hold. Next,
33618460 move the pointer to another location in the image. As you move a line connects
33628461 the initial location and the pointer. When you release the button, the
33638462 degree of image rotation is determined by the slope of the line you just
33648463 drew. The slope is relative to the direction you choose from the Direction
33658464 sub-menu of the Command widget.
3366-
8465+\'
33678466 To cancel the image rotation, move the pointer back to the starting point
33688467 of the line and release the button.
33698468 .SH IMAGE ANNOTATION
3370-
8469+\'
33718470 An image is annotated interactively. There is no command line argument
33728471 to annotate an image. To begin, choose
33738472 \fBAnnotate\fP of the \fBImage
33748473 Edit\fP sub-menu from the Command widget. Alternatively,
33758474 press a in the image window.
3376-
8475+\'
33778476 A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
33788477 window. You are now in annotate mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss.
33798478 In annotate mode, the Command widget has these options:
3380-
8479+\'
33818480
33828481 \fBFont Name\fP
3383-
8482+\'
33848483
33858484 fixed
33868485
@@ -3401,10 +8500,10 @@
34018500 12x24
34028501
34038502 Browser...
3404-
8503+\'
34058504
34068505 \fBFont Color\fP
3407-
8506+\'
34088507
34098508 black
34108509
@@ -3427,10 +8526,10 @@
34278526 transparent
34288527
34298528 Browser...
3430-
8529+\'
34318530
34328531 \fBBox Color\fP
3433-
8532+\'
34348533
34358534 black
34368535
@@ -3453,10 +8552,10 @@
34538552 transparent
34548553
34558554 Browser...
3456-
8555+\'
34578556
34588557 \fBRotate Text\fP
3459-
8558+\'
34608559
34618560 -90
34628561
@@ -3475,36 +8574,36 @@
34758574 180
34768575
34778576 Dialog...
3478-
8577+\'
34798578
34808579 \fBHelp\fP
34818580
34828581 \fBDismiss\fP
3483-
3484-
8582+\'
8583+\'
34858584 Choose a font name from the \fBFont Name\fP sub-menu. Additional font
34868585 names can be specified with the font browser. You can change the menu names
34878586 by setting the X resources font1 through font9.
3488-
8587+\'
34898588 Choose a font color from the \fBFont Color\fP sub-menu. Additional font
34908589 colors can be specified with the color browser. You can change the menu
34918590 colors by setting the X resources pen1 through pen9.
3492-
8591+\'
34938592 If you select the color browser and press \fBGrab\fP, you can choose the
34948593 font color by moving the pointer to the desired color on the screen and
34958594 press any button.
3496-
8595+\'
34978596 If you choose to rotate the text, choose \fBRotate Text\fP from the menu
34988597 and select an angle. Typically you will only want to rotate one line of
34998598 text at a time. Depending on the angle you choose, subsequent lines may
35008599 end up overwriting each other.
3501-
8600+\'
35028601 Choosing a font and its color is optional. The default font is fixed and
35038602 the default color is black. However, you must choose a location to begin
35048603 entering text and press a button. An underscore character will appear at
35058604 the location of the pointer. The cursor changes to a pencil to indicate
35068605 you are in text mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss.
3507-
8606+\'
35088607 In text mode, any key presses will display the character at the location
35098608 of the underscore and advance the underscore cursor. Enter your text and
35108609 once completed press Apply to finish your image annotation. To correct
@@ -3512,7 +8611,7 @@
35128611 \fBDELETE\fP.
35138612 Any text that exceeds the boundaries of the image window is automatically
35148613 continued onto the next line.
3515-
8614+\'
35168615 The actual color you request for the font is saved in the image. However,
35178616 the color that appears in your Image window may be different. For example,
35188617 on a monochrome screen the text will appear black or white even if you
@@ -3523,30 +8622,30 @@
35238622 to remain
35248623 \fIPseudoClass\fP, use \fB-colors\fP.
35258624 .SH IMAGE COMPOSITING
3526-
8625+\'
35278626 An image composite is created interactively. \fBThere is no command line
35288627 argument to composite an image\fP. To begin, choose \fBComposite\fP of
35298628 the \fBImage Edit\fP from the Command widget. Alternatively,
35308629 press x in the Image window.
3531-
8630+\'
35328631 First a popup window is displayed requesting you to enter an image name.
35338632 Press \fBComposite\fP, \fBGrab\fP or type a file name. Press \fBCancel\fP
35348633 if you choose not to create a composite image. When you choose \fBGrab\fP,
35358634 move the pointer to the desired window and press any button.
3536-
8635+\'
35378636 If the \fBComposite\fP image does not have any matte information, you
35388637 are informed and the file browser is displayed again. Enter the name of
35398638 a mask image. The image is typically grayscale and the same size as the
35408639 composite image. If the image is not grayscale, it is converted to grayscale
35418640 and the resulting intensities are used as matte information.
3542-
8641+\'
35438642 A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
35448643 window. You are now in composite mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss.
35458644 In composite mode, the Command widget has these options:
3546-
8645+\'
35478646
35488647 \fBOperators\fP
3549-
8648+\'
35508649
35518650 over
35528651
@@ -3571,7 +8670,7 @@
35718670 bumpmap
35728671
35738672 replace
3574-
8673+\'
35758674
35768675 \fBBlend\fP
35778676
@@ -3580,8 +8679,8 @@
35808679 \fBHelp\fP
35818680
35828681 \fBDismiss\fP
3583-
3584-
8682+\'
8683+\'
35858684 Choose a composite operation from the Operators sub-menu of the Command
35868685 widget. How each operator behaves is described below. image window is the
35878686 image currently displayed on your X server and image is the image obtained
@@ -3654,7 +8753,7 @@
36548753 The resulting image is \fIimage window\fP replaced with
36558754 \fIimage\fP.
36568755 Here the matte information is ignored.
3657-
8756+\'
36588757 The image compositor requires a matte, or alpha channel in the image for
36598758 some operations. This extra channel usually defines a mask which represents
36608759 a sort of a cookie-cutter for the image. This is the case when matte is
@@ -3663,12 +8762,12 @@
36638762 is initialized with 0 for any pixel matching in color to pixel location
36648763 (0,0), otherwise 255. See Matte Editing for a method
36658764 of defining a matte channel.
3666-
8765+\'
36678766 If you choose \fBblend\fP, the composite operator becomes \fBover\fP.
36688767 The image matte channel percent transparency is initialized to factor.
36698768 The image window is initialized to (100-factor). Where factor is the value
36708769 you specify in the Dialog widget.
3671-
8770+\'
36728771 \fBDisplace\fP shifts the image pixels as defined by a displacement map.
36738772 With this option, \fIimage\fP is used as a displacement map. Black, within
36748773 the displacement map, is a maximum positive displacement. White is a maximum
@@ -3679,19 +8778,19 @@
36798778 \fIimage\fP
36808779 is the horizontal X displacement and
36818780 \fImask\fP the vertical Y displacement.
3682-
8781+\'
36838782 Note that matte information for image window is not retained for colormapped
36848783 X server visuals (e.g.
36858784 \fIStaticColor, StaticColor, GrayScale, PseudoColor\fP).
36868785 Correct compositing behavior may require a \fITrueColor\fP or
36878786 \fIDirectColor\fP
36888787 visual or a \fIStandard Colormap\fP.
3689-
8788+\'
36908789 Choosing a composite operator is optional. The default operator is replace.
36918790 However, you must choose a location to composite your image and press button
36928791 1. Press and hold the button before releasing and an outline of the image
36938792 will appear to help you identify your location.
3694-
8793+\'
36958794 The actual colors of the composite image is saved. However, the color that
36968795 appears in image window may be different. For example, on a monochrome
36978796 screen Image window will appear black or white even though your composited
@@ -3702,20 +8801,20 @@
37028801 To force a \fIPseudoClass\fP image to remain \fIPseudoClass\fP,
37038802 use \fB-colors\fP.
37048803 .SH COLOR EDITING
3705-
8804+\'
37068805 Changing the the color of a set of pixels is performed interactively. There
37078806 is no command line argument to edit a pixel. To begin, choose \fBColor\fP
37088807 from the \fBImage Edit\fP submenu of the Command widget.
37098808 Alternatively, press c in the image window.
3710-
8809+\'
37118810 A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
37128811 window. You are now in color edit mode. To exit immediately, press \fBDismiss\fP.
37138812 In color edit mode, the
37148813 \fBCommand widget\fP has these options:
3715-
8814+\'
37168815
37178816 \fBMethod\fP
3718-
8817+\'
37198818
37208819 point
37218820
@@ -3724,34 +8823,10 @@
37248823 floodfill
37258824
37268825 reset
3727-
8826+\'
37288827
37298828 \fBPixel Color\fP
3730-
3731-
3732-black
3733-
3734-blue
3735-
3736-cyan
3737-
3738-green
3739-
3740-gray
3741-
3742-red
3743-
3744-magenta
3745-
3746-yellow
3747-
3748-white
3749-
3750-Browser...
3751-
3752-
3753-\fBBorder Color\fP
3754-
8829+\'
37558830
37568831 black
37578832
@@ -3772,99 +8847,10 @@
37728847 white
37738848
37748849 Browser...
3775-
3776-
3777-\fBFuzz\fP
3778-
3779-
3780-0
3781-
3782-2
3783-
3784-4
3785-
3786-8
3787-
3788-16
3789- Dialog...
3790-
3791-
3792-\fBUndo\fP
3793-
3794-\fBHelp\fP
3795-
3796-\fBDismiss\fP
3797-
3798-
3799-Choose a color editing method from the \fBMethod\fP sub-menu of
3800-the Command
3801-widget. The \fBpoint method\fP recolors any pixel selected with the
3802-pointer unless the button is released. The \fBreplace method\fP recolors
3803-any pixel that matches the color of the pixel you select with a button
3804-press. \fBFloodfill\fP recolors any pixel that matches the color of the
3805-pixel you select with a button press and is a neighbor.
3806-Whereas \fBfilltoborder\fP
3807-changes the matte value of any neighbor pixel that is not the border color.
3808-Finally \fBreset\fP changes the entire image to the designated color.
3809-
3810-Next, choose a pixel color from the \fBPixel Color\fP sub-menu. Additional
3811-pixel colors can be specified with the color browser. You can change the
3812-menu colors by setting the X resources pen1 through
3813-pen9.
3814-
3815-Now press button 1 to select a pixel within the Image window to change
3816-its color. Additional pixels may be recolored as prescribed by the method
3817-you choose. additional pixels by increasing the Delta value.
3818-
3819-If the \fBMagnify widget\fP is mapped, it can be helpful in positioning
3820-your pointer within the image (refer to button 2). Alternatively you can
3821-select a pixel to recolor from within the \fBMagnify widget\fP. Move the
3822-pointer to the \fBMagnify widget\fP and position the pixel with the cursor
3823-control keys. Finally, press a button to recolor the selected pixel (or
3824-pixels).
3825-
3826-The actual color you request for the pixels is saved in the image. However,
3827-the color that appears in your Image window may be different. For example,
3828-on a monochrome screen the pixel will appear black or white even if you
3829-choose the color red as the pixel color. However, the image saved to a
3830-file with -write is written with red pixels. To assure the correct color
3831-text in the final image, any \fIPseudoClass\fP image is promoted
3832-to \fIDirectClass\fP
3833-To force a \fIPseudoClass\fP image to remain
3834-\fIPseudoClass\fP, use \fB-colors\fP.
3835-.SH MATTE EDITING
3836-
3837-Matte information within an image is useful for some operations such as
3838-image compositing. This extra channel usually defines
3839-a mask which represents a sort of a cookie-cutter for the image. This is
3840-the case when matte is 255 (full coverage) for pixels inside the shape,
3841-zero outside, and between zero and 255 on the boundary.
3842-
3843-Setting the matte information in an image is done interactively. There
3844-is no command line argument to edit a pixel. To begin, and choose \fBMatte\fP
3845-of the \fBImage Edit\fP sub-menu from the Command widget.
3846-
3847-Alternatively, press m in the image window.
3848-
3849-A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
3850-window. You are now in matte edit mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss.
3851-In matte edit mode, the Command widget has these options:
3852-
3853-
3854-\fBMethod\fP
3855-
3856-
3857-point
3858-
3859-replace
3860-
3861-floodfill
3862-
3863-reset
3864-
8850+\'
38658851
38668852 \fBBorder Color\fP
3867-
8853+\'
38688854
38698855 black
38708856
@@ -3885,10 +8871,10 @@
38858871 white
38868872
38878873 Browser...
3888-
8874+\'
38898875
38908876 \fBFuzz\fP
3891-
8877+\'
38928878
38938879 0
38948880
@@ -3900,7 +8886,120 @@
39008886
39018887 16
39028888 Dialog...
3903-
8889+\'
8890+
8891+\fBUndo\fP
8892+
8893+\fBHelp\fP
8894+
8895+\fBDismiss\fP
8896+\'
8897+\'
8898+Choose a color editing method from the \fBMethod\fP sub-menu of
8899+the Command
8900+widget. The \fBpoint method\fP recolors any pixel selected with the
8901+pointer unless the button is released. The \fBreplace method\fP recolors
8902+any pixel that matches the color of the pixel you select with a button
8903+press. \fBFloodfill\fP recolors any pixel that matches the color of the
8904+pixel you select with a button press and is a neighbor.
8905+Whereas \fBfilltoborder\fP
8906+changes the matte value of any neighbor pixel that is not the border color.
8907+Finally \fBreset\fP changes the entire image to the designated color.
8908+\'
8909+Next, choose a pixel color from the \fBPixel Color\fP sub-menu. Additional
8910+pixel colors can be specified with the color browser. You can change the
8911+menu colors by setting the X resources pen1 through
8912+pen9.
8913+\'
8914+Now press button 1 to select a pixel within the Image window to change
8915+its color. Additional pixels may be recolored as prescribed by the method
8916+you choose. additional pixels by increasing the Delta value.
8917+\'
8918+If the \fBMagnify widget\fP is mapped, it can be helpful in positioning
8919+your pointer within the image (refer to button 2). Alternatively you can
8920+select a pixel to recolor from within the \fBMagnify widget\fP. Move the
8921+pointer to the \fBMagnify widget\fP and position the pixel with the cursor
8922+control keys. Finally, press a button to recolor the selected pixel (or
8923+pixels).
8924+\'
8925+The actual color you request for the pixels is saved in the image. However,
8926+the color that appears in your Image window may be different. For example,
8927+on a monochrome screen the pixel will appear black or white even if you
8928+choose the color red as the pixel color. However, the image saved to a
8929+file with -write is written with red pixels. To assure the correct color
8930+text in the final image, any \fIPseudoClass\fP image is promoted
8931+to \fIDirectClass\fP
8932+To force a \fIPseudoClass\fP image to remain
8933+\fIPseudoClass\fP, use \fB-colors\fP.
8934+.SH MATTE EDITING
8935+\'
8936+Matte information within an image is useful for some operations such as
8937+image compositing. This extra channel usually defines
8938+a mask which represents a sort of a cookie-cutter for the image. This is
8939+the case when matte is 255 (full coverage) for pixels inside the shape,
8940+zero outside, and between zero and 255 on the boundary.
8941+\'
8942+Setting the matte information in an image is done interactively. There
8943+is no command line argument to edit a pixel. To begin, and choose \fBMatte\fP
8944+of the \fBImage Edit\fP sub-menu from the Command widget.
8945+\'
8946+Alternatively, press m in the image window.
8947+\'
8948+A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
8949+window. You are now in matte edit mode. To exit immediately, press Dismiss.
8950+In matte edit mode, the Command widget has these options:
8951+\'
8952+
8953+\fBMethod\fP
8954+\'
8955+
8956+point
8957+
8958+replace
8959+
8960+floodfill
8961+
8962+reset
8963+\'
8964+
8965+\fBBorder Color\fP
8966+\'
8967+
8968+black
8969+
8970+blue
8971+
8972+cyan
8973+
8974+green
8975+
8976+gray
8977+
8978+red
8979+
8980+magenta
8981+
8982+yellow
8983+
8984+white
8985+
8986+Browser...
8987+\'
8988+
8989+\fBFuzz\fP
8990+\'
8991+
8992+0
8993+
8994+2
8995+
8996+4
8997+
8998+8
8999+
9000+16
9001+ Dialog...
9002+\'
39049003
39059004 \fBMatte\fP
39069005
@@ -3909,7 +9008,7 @@
39099008 \fBHelp\fP
39109009
39119010 \fBDismiss\fP
3912-
9011+\'
39139012 Choose a matte editing method from the \fBMethod\fP sub-menu of the Command
39149013 widget. The \fBpoint method\fP changes the matte value of the any
39159014 pixel selected with the pointer until the button is released. The \fBreplace
@@ -3944,19 +9043,19 @@
39449043 matte editing behavior may require a \fITrueColor\fP or \fIDirectColor\fP
39459044 visual or a \fIStandard Colormap\fP.
39469045 .SH IMAGE DRAWING
3947-
9046+\'
39489047 An image is drawn upon interactively. \fBThere is no command line argument
39499048 to draw on an image\fP. To begin, choose \fBDraw\fP of the Image \fBEdit\fP
39509049 sub-menu from the Command widget.
39519050 Alternatively, press d in the image window.
3952-
9051+\'
39539052 The cursor changes to a crosshair to indicate you are in draw mode. To
39549053 exit immediately, press Dismiss. In draw mode, the Command widget has these
39559054 options:
3956-
9055+\'
39579056
39589057 \fBPrimitive\fP
3959-
9058+\'
39609059
39619060 point
39629061
@@ -3977,10 +9076,10 @@
39779076 polygon
39789077
39799078 fill polygon
3980-
9079+\'
39819080
39829081 \fBColor\fP
3983-
9082+\'
39849083
39859084 black
39869085
@@ -4003,10 +9102,10 @@
40039102 transparent
40049103
40059104 Browser...
4006-
9105+\'
40079106
40089107 \fBStipple\fP
4009-
9108+\'
40109109
40119110 Brick
40129111
@@ -4023,10 +9122,10 @@
40239122 Opaque
40249123
40259124 Open...
4026-
9125+\'
40279126
40289127 \fBWidth\fP
4029-
9128+\'
40309129
40319130 1
40329131
@@ -4038,82 +9137,82 @@
40389137
40399138 16
40409139 Dialog...
4041-
9140+\'
40429141
40439142 \fBUndo\fP
40449143
40459144 \fBHelp\fP
40469145
40479146 \fBDismiss\fP
4048-
9147+\'
40499148 Choose a drawing primitive from the \fBPrimitive\fP sub-menu.
4050-
9149+\'
40519150 Next, choose a color from the \fBColor\fP sub-menu. Additional colors
40529151 can be specified with the color browser. You can change the menu colors
40539152 by setting the X resources pen1 through pen9. The transparent
40549153 color updates the image matte channel and is useful for image compositing.
4055-
9154+\'
40569155 If you choose the color browser and press \fBGrab\fP, you can select the
40579156 primitive color by moving the pointer to the desired color on the screen
40589157 and press any button. The transparent color updates the image matte channel
40599158 and is useful for image compositing.
4060-
9159+\'
40619160 Choose a stipple, if appropriate, from the \fBStipple\fP sub-menu. Additional
40629161 stipples can be specified with the file browser. Stipples obtained from
40639162 the file browser must be on disk in the X11 bitmap format.
4064-
9163+\'
40659164 Choose a line width, if appropriate, from the \fBWidth\fP sub-menu. To
40669165 choose a specific width select the \fBDialog\fP widget.
4067-
9166+\'
40689167 Choose a point in the image window and press button 1 and hold. Next, move
40699168 the pointer to another location in the image. As you move, a line connects
40709169 the initial location and the pointer. When you release the button, the
40719170 image is updated with the primitive you just drew. For polygons, the image
40729171 is updated when you press and release the button without moving the pointer.
4073-
9172+\'
40749173 To cancel image drawing, move the pointer back to the starting point of
40759174 the line and release the button.
40769175 .SH REGION OF INTEREST
4077-
9176+\'
40789177 To begin, press choose Region of Interest of the Pixel Transform sub-menu
40799178 from the Command widget.
40809179 Alternatively, press R in the image window.
4081-
9180+\'
40829181 A small window appears showing the location of the cursor in the image
40839182 window. You are now in region of interest mode. In region of interest mode,
40849183 the Command widget has these options:
4085-
9184+\'
40869185
40879186 \fBHelp\fP
40889187
40899188 \fBDismiss\fP
4090-
4091-
9189+\'
9190+\'
40929191 To define a region of interest, press button 1 and drag. The region of
40939192 interest is defined by a highlighted rectangle that expands or contracts
40949193 as it follows the pointer. Once you are satisfied with the region of interest,
40959194 release the button. You are now in apply mode. In apply mode the Command
40969195 widget has these options:
4097-
9196+\'
40989197
40999198 \fBFile\fP
4100-
9199+\'
41019200
41029201 Save...
41039202
41049203 Print...
4105-
9204+\'
41069205
41079206 \fBEdit\fP
4108-
9207+\'
41099208
41109209 Undo
41119210
41129211 Redo
4113-
9212+\'
41149213
41159214 \fBTransform\fP
4116-
9215+\'
41179216
41189217 Flip
41199218
@@ -4122,10 +9221,10 @@
41229221 Rotate Right
41239222
41249223 Rotate Left
4125-
9224+\'
41269225
41279226 \fBEnhance\fP
4128-
9227+\'
41299228
41309229 Hue...
41319230
@@ -4148,10 +9247,10 @@
41489247 GRAYscale
41499248
41509249 Quantize...
4151-
9250+\'
41529251
41539252 \fBEffects\fP
4154-
9253+\'
41559254
41569255 Despeckle
41579256
@@ -4176,12 +9275,12 @@
41769275 Raise...
41779276
41789277 Segment...
4179-
4180-
4181-
9278+\'
9279+\'
9280+\'
41829281
41839282 \fBF/X\fP
4184-
9283+\'
41859284
41869285 Solarize...
41879286
@@ -4194,12 +9293,12 @@
41949293 Oil Paint
41959294
41969295 Charcoal Draw...
4197-
4198-
4199-
9296+\'
9297+\'
9298+\'
42009299
42019300 \fBMiscellany\fP
4202-
9301+\'
42039302
42049303 Image Info
42059304
@@ -4210,13 +9309,13 @@
42109309 Show Histogram
42119310
42129311 Show Matte
4213-
9312+\'
42149313
42159314 \fBHelp\fP
42169315
42179316 \fBDismiss\fP
4218-
4219-
9317+\'
9318+\'
42209319 You can make adjustments to the region of interest by moving the pointer
42219320 to one of the rectangle corners, pressing a button, and dragging. Finally,
42229321 choose an image processing technique from the Command widget. You can choose
@@ -4224,7 +9323,7 @@
42249323 you can move the region of interest before applying another image processing
42259324 technique. To exit, press Dismiss.
42269325 .SH IMAGE PANNING
4227-
9326+\'
42289327 When an image exceeds the width or height of the X server screen, display
42299328 maps a small panning icon. The rectangle within the panning icon shows
42309329 the area that is currently displayed in the the image window. To pan about
@@ -4232,26 +9331,26 @@
42329331 The pan rectangle moves with the pointer and the image window is updated
42339332 to reflect the location of the rectangle within the panning icon. When
42349333 you have selected the area of the image you wish to view, release the button.
4235-
9334+\'
42369335 Use the arrow keys to pan the image one pixel up, down, left, or right
42379336 within the image window.
4238-
9337+\'
42399338 The panning icon is withdrawn if the image becomes smaller than the dimensions
42409339 of the X server screen.
42419340 .SH USER PREFERENCES
4242-
9341+\'
42439342 Preferences affect the default behavior of \fBdisplay(1)\fP. The preferences
42449343 are either true or false and are stored in your home directory
42459344 as .displayrc:
42469345 .in 15
4247-
9346+\'
42489347 .in 15
42499348 .B "
42509349 \fBdisplay image centered on a backdrop\fP"
42519350 .in 20
4252-\fR
4253-.in 20
4254-
9351+ \fR
9352+.in 20
9353+\'
42559354 This backdrop covers the entire workstation screen and is useful for hiding
42569355 other X window activity while viewing the image. The color of the backdrop
42579356 is specified as the background color. Refer to X Resources
@@ -4261,18 +9360,18 @@
42619360 .B "
42629361 \fBconfirm on program exit\fP"
42639362 .in 20
4264-\fR
4265-.in 20
4266-
9363+ \fR
9364+.in 20
9365+\'
42679366 Ask for a confirmation before exiting the \fBdisplay(1)\fP program.
42689367 .in 15
42699368 .in 15
42709369 .B "
42719370 \fBcorrect image for display gamma\fP"
42729371 .in 20
4273-\fR
4274-.in 20
4275-
9372+ \fR
9373+.in 20
9374+\'
42769375 If the image has a known gamma, the gamma is corrected to match that of
42779376 the X server (see the X Resource\fB displayGamma\fP).
42789377 .in 15
@@ -4280,18 +9379,18 @@
42809379 .B "
42819380 \fBdisplay warning messages\fP"
42829381 .in 20
4283-\fR
4284-.in 20
4285-
9382+ \fR
9383+.in 20
9384+\'
42869385 Display any warning messages.
42879386 .in 15
42889387 .in 15
42899388 .B "
42909389 \fBapply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to image\fP"
42919390 .in 20
4292-\fR
4293-.in 20
4294-
9391+ \fR
9392+.in 20
9393+\'
42959394 The basic strategy of dithering is to trade intensity resolution for spatial
42969395 resolution by averaging the intensities of several neighboring pixels.
42979396 Images which suffer from severe contouring when reducing colors can be
@@ -4301,9 +9400,9 @@
43019400 .B "
43029401 \fBuse a shared colormap for colormapped X visuals\fP"
43039402 .in 20
4304-\fR
4305-.in 20
4306-
9403+ \fR
9404+.in 20
9405+\'
43079406 This option only applies when the default X server visual is
43089407 \fIPseudoColor\fP
43099408 or \fIGRAYScale\fP. Refer to \fB-visual\fP for more details. By default,
@@ -4317,5121 +9416,22 @@
43179416 .B "
43189417 \fBdisplay images as an X server pixmap\fP"
43199418 .in 20
4320-\fR
4321-.in 20
4322-
9419+ \fR
9420+.in 20
9421+\'
43239422 Images are maintained as a XImage by default. Set this resource to True
43249423 to utilize a server Pixmap instead. This option is useful if your image
43259424 exceeds the dimensions of your server screen and you intend to pan the
43269425 image. Panning is much faster with Pixmaps than with a XImage. Pixmaps
43279426 are considered a precious resource, use them with discretion.
43289427 .in 15
4329-
4330-.TP
4331-.in 15
4332-.in 15
4333-.in 20
4334-.SH NAME
4335-
4336-gm - command-line utility to create, edit, compare, convert, or display images
4337-
4338-.SH SYNOPSIS
4339-
4340-\fBgm animate\fP \fB[\fP \fIoptions ...\fP \fB]\fP \fIfile\fP \fB[ [\fP
4341-\fIoptions ...\fP \fB]\fP \fIfile ...\fP \fB]\fP
4342-
4343-\fBgm batch\fP \fB[\fP \fIoptions ...\fP \fB]\fP \fB[\fP \fIscript\fP \fB]\fP
4344-
4345-\fBgm benchmark\fP \fB[\fP \fIoptions ...\fP \fB]\fP subcommand
4346-
4347-\fBgm compare\fP \fB[\fP \fIoptions\fP \fB... ]\fP \fIreference-image\fP
4348-\fB[\fP \fIoptions\fP \fB... ]\fP \fIcompare-image\fP
4349-\fB[\fP \fIoptions\fP \fB... ]\fP
4350-
4351-\fBgm composite\fP \fB[\fP \fIoptions ...\fP \fB]\fP \fIchange-image base-image\fP
4352-\fB[\fP \fImask-image\fP \fB]\fP \fIoutput-image\fP
4353-
4354-\fBgm conjure\fP \fB[\fP \fIoptions\fP \fB]\fP \fIscript.msl\fP
4355-\fB[ [\fP \fIoptions\fP \fB]\fP \fIscript.msl\fP \fB]\fP
4356-
4357-\fBgm convert\fP \fB[ [\fP \fIoptions ...\fP \fB] [\fP \fIinput-file ...\fP
4358-\fB] [\fP \fIoptions ...\fP \fB] ]\fP \fIoutput-file\fP
4359-
4360-\fBgm display\fP \fB[\fP \fIoptions ...\fP \fB]\fP \fIfile ...\fP
4361-\fB[ [\fP\fIoptions ...\fP \fB]\fP\fIfile ...\fP \fB]\fP
4362-
4363-\fBgm identify\fP \fIfile\fP \fB[\fP \fIfile ...\fP \fB]\fP
4364-
4365-\fBgm import\fP \fB[\fP \fIoptions ...\fP \fB]\fP \fIfile\fP
4366-
4367-\fBgm mogrify\fP \fB[\fP \fIoptions ...\fP \fB]\fP \fIfile ...\fP
4368-
4369-\fBgm montage\fP \fB[\fP \fIoptions ...\fP \fB]\fP \fIfile\fP \fB[ [\fP
4370-\fIoptions ...\fP \fB]\fP \fIfile ...\fP \fB]\fP \fIoutput-file\fP
4371-
4372-\fBgm time\fP subcommand
4373-
4374-\fBgm version\fP
4375-.SH DESCRIPTION
4376-
4377-GraphicsMagick's \fBgm\fP provides a suite of utilities for creating,
4378-comparing, converting, editing, and displaying images. All of the
4379-utilities are provided as sub-commands of a single \fBgm\fP
4380-executable. The \fBgm\fP executable returns the exit code 0 to
4381-indicate success, or 1 to indicate failure:
4382-
4383-\fBanimate\fP
4384-displays an animation (e.g. a GIF file) on any workstation display
4385-running an \fIX\fP server.
4386-
4387-\fBbatch\fP
4388-executes an arbitary number of the utility commands
4389-(e.g. \fBconvert\fP) in the form of a simple linear batch script in
4390-order to improve execution efficiency, and/or to allow use as a
4391-subordinate co-process under the control of an arbitrary script or
4392-program.
4393-
4394-\fBbenchmark\fP
4395-executes one of the other utility commands (e.g. \fBconvert\fP) for a
4396-specified number of iterations, or execution time, and reports
4397-execution time and other profiling information such as CPU
4398-utilization. \fBBenchmark\fP provides various operating modes
4399-including executing the command with a varying number of threads, and
4400-alternate reporting formats such as comma-separated value (CSV).
4401-
4402-\fBcompare\fP
4403-compares two images and reports difference statistics according to
4404-specified metrics and/or outputs an image with a visual representation
4405-of the differences. It may also be used to test if images are similar
4406-within a particular range and specified metric, returning a truth
4407-value to the executing environment.
4408-
4409-\fBcomposite\fP
4410-composites images (blends or merges images together) to create new images.
4411-
4412-\fBconjure\fP
4413-interprets and executes scripts in
4414-the Magick Scripting Language (MSL).
4415-
4416-\fBconvert\fP
4417-converts an input file using one image format to an output file with
4418-the same or differing image format while applying an arbitrary number
4419-of image transformations.
4420-
4421-\fBdisplay\fP
4422-is a machine architecture independent image processing and display
4423-facility. It can display an image on any workstation display running
4424-an \fIX\fP server.
4425-
4426-\fBidentify\fP
4427-describes the format and characteristics of one or more image
4428-files. It will also report if an image is incomplete or corrupt.
4429-
4430-\fBimport\fP
4431-reads an image from any visible window on an \fIX\fP server and
4432-outputs it as an image file. You can capture a single window, the
4433-entire screen, or any rectangular portion of the screen.
4434-
4435-\fBmogrify\fP
4436-transforms an image or a sequence of images. These transforms include
4437-\fBimage scaling\fP, \fBimage rotation\fP, \fBcolor reduction\fP,
4438-and others. The transmogrified image \fBoverwrites\fP the original
4439-image.
4440-
4441-\fBmontage\fP
4442-creates a composite by combining several separate images. The images
4443-are tiled on the composite image with the name of the image optionally
4444-appearing just below the individual tile.
4445-
4446-\fBtime\fP
4447-executes a subcommand and reports the user, system, and total
4448-execution time consumed.
4449-
4450-\fBversion\fP
4451-reports the GraphicsMagick release version, maximum sample-depth,
4452-copyright notice, supported features, and the options used while
4453-building the software.
4454-
4455-The \fBGraphicsMagick\fP utilities recognize the following image formats:
4456-
4457-
4458-\fBName\fP \fBMode\fP \fBDescription\fP
4459- o 3FR r-- Hasselblad Photo RAW
4460- o 8BIM rw- Photoshop resource format
4461- o 8BIMTEXT rw- Photoshop resource text format
4462- o 8BIMWTEXT rw- Photoshop resource wide text format
4463- o APP1 rw- Raw application information
4464- o APP1JPEG rw- Raw JPEG binary data
4465- o ART r-- PF1: 1st Publisher
4466- o ARW r-- Sony Alpha DSLR RAW
4467- o AVS rw+ AVS X image
4468- o BIE rw- Joint Bi-level Image experts Group
4469- interchange format
4470- o BMP rw+ Microsoft Windows bitmap image
4471- o BMP2 -w- Microsoft Windows bitmap image v2
4472- o BMP3 -w- Microsoft Windows bitmap image v3
4473- o CACHE --- Magick Persistent Cache image format
4474- o CALS rw- Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle
4475- Support Type 1 image
4476- o CAPTION r-- Caption (requires separate size info)
4477- o CIN rw- Kodak Cineon Format
4478- o CMYK rw- Raw cyan, magenta, yellow, and black
4479- samples (8 or 16 bits, depending on
4480- the image depth)
4481- o CMYKA rw- Raw cyan, magenta, yellow, black, and
4482- matte samples (8 or 16 bits, depending
4483- on the image depth)
4484- o CR2 r-- Canon Photo RAW
4485- o CRW r-- Canon Photo RAW
4486- o CUR r-- Microsoft Cursor Icon
4487- o CUT r-- DR Halo
4488- o DCM r-- Digital Imaging and Communications in
4489- Medicine image
4490- o DCR r-- Kodak Photo RAW
4491- o DCX rw+ ZSoft IBM PC multi-page Paintbrush
4492- o DNG r-- Adobe Digital Negative
4493- o DPS r-- Display PostScript Interpreter
4494- o DPX rw- Digital Moving Picture Exchange
4495- o EPDF rw- Encapsulated Portable Document Format
4496- o EPI rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
4497- Interchange format
4498- o EPS rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
4499- o EPS2 -w- Adobe Level II Encapsulated PostScript
4500- o EPS3 -w- Adobe Level III Encapsulated PostScript
4501- o EPSF rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
4502- o EPSI rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
4503- Interchange format
4504- o EPT rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript with MS-DOS
4505- TIFF preview
4506- o EPT2 rw- Adobe Level II Encapsulated PostScript
4507- with MS-DOS TIFF preview
4508- o EPT3 rw- Adobe Level III Encapsulated PostScript
4509- with MS-DOS TIFF preview
4510- o EXIF rw- Exif digital camera binary data
4511- o FAX rw+ Group 3 FAX (Not TIFF Group3 FAX!)
4512- o FITS rw- Flexible Image Transport System
4513- o FRACTAL r-- Plasma fractal image
4514- o FPX rw- FlashPix Format
4515- o GIF rw+ CompuServe graphics interchange format
4516- o GIF87 rw- CompuServe graphics interchange format
4517- (version 87a)
4518- o GRADIENT r-- Gradual passing from one shade to
4519- another
4520- o GRAY rw+ Raw gray samples (8/16/32 bits,
4521- depending on the image depth)
4522- o HISTOGRAM -w- Histogram of the image
4523- o HRZ r-- HRZ: Slow scan TV
4524- o HTML -w- Hypertext Markup Language and a
4525- client-side image map
4526- o ICB rw+ Truevision Targa image
4527- o ICC rw- ICC Color Profile
4528- o ICM rw- ICC Color Profile
4529- o ICO r-- Microsoft icon
4530- o ICON r-- Microsoft icon
4531- o IDENTITY r-- Hald CLUT identity image
4532- o IMAGE r-- GraphicsMagick Embedded Image
4533- o INFO -w+ Image descriptive information and
4534- statistics
4535- o IPTC rw- IPTC Newsphoto
4536- o IPTCTEXT rw- IPTC Newsphoto text format
4537- o IPTCWTEXT rw- IPTC Newsphoto wide text format
4538- o JBG rw+ Joint Bi-level Image experts Group
4539- interchange format
4540- o JBIG rw+ Joint Bi-level Image experts Group
4541- interchange format
4542- o JNG rw- JPEG Network Graphics
4543- o JP2 rw- JPEG-2000 JP2 File Format Syntax
4544- o JPC rw- JPEG-2000 Code Stream Syntax
4545- o JPEG rw- Joint Photographic Experts Group
4546- JFIF format
4547- o JPG rw- Joint Photographic Experts Group
4548- JFIF format
4549- o K25 r-- Kodak Photo RAW
4550- o KDC r-- Kodak Photo RAW
4551- o LABEL r-- Text image format
4552- o M2V rw+ MPEG-2 Video Stream
4553- o MAP rw- Colormap intensities and indices
4554- o MAT r-- MATLAB image format
4555- o MATTE -w+ MATTE format
4556- o MIFF rw+ Magick Image File Format
4557- o MNG rw+ Multiple-image Network Graphics
4558- o MONO rw- Bi-level bitmap in least-significant-
4559- -byte-first order
4560- o MPC rw+ Magick Persistent Cache image format
4561- o MPEG rw+ MPEG-1 Video Stream
4562- o MPG rw+ MPEG-1 Video Stream
4563- o MRW r-- Minolta Photo Raw
4564- o MSL r-- Magick Scripting Language
4565- o MTV rw+ MTV Raytracing image format
4566- o MVG rw- Magick Vector Graphics
4567- o NEF r-- Nikon Electronic Format
4568- o NULL r-- Constant image of uniform color
4569- o OTB rw- On-the-air bitmap
4570- o P7 rw+ Xv thumbnail format
4571- o PAL rw- 16bit/pixel interleaved YUV
4572- o PALM rw- Palm Pixmap
4573- o PBM rw+ Portable bitmap format (black and white)
4574- o PCD rw- Photo CD
4575- o PCDS rw- Photo CD
4576- o PCL -w- Page Control Language
4577- o PCT rw- Apple Macintosh QuickDraw/PICT
4578- o PCX rw- ZSoft IBM PC Paintbrush
4579- o PDB rw+ Palm Database ImageViewer Format
4580- o PDF rw+ Portable Document Format
4581- o PEF r-- Pentax Electronic File
4582- o PFA r-- TrueType font
4583- o PFB r-- TrueType font
4584- o PGM rw+ Portable graymap format (gray scale)
4585- o PGX r-- JPEG-2000 VM Format
4586- o PICON rw- Personal Icon
4587- o PICT rw- Apple Macintosh QuickDraw/PICT
4588- o PIX r-- Alias/Wavefront RLE image format
4589- o PLASMA r-- Plasma fractal image
4590- o PNG rw- Portable Network Graphics
4591- o PNG24 rw- Portable Network Graphics, 24 bit RGB
4592- opaque only
4593- o PNG32 rw- Portable Network Graphics, 32 bit RGBA
4594- semitransparency OK
4595- o PNG8 rw- Portable Network Graphics, 8-bit
4596- indexed, binary transparency only
4597- o PNM rw+ Portable anymap
4598- o PPM rw+ Portable pixmap format (color)
4599- o PREVIEW -w- Show a preview an image enhancement,
4600- effect, or f/x
4601- o PS rw+ Adobe PostScript
4602- o PS2 -w+ Adobe Level II PostScript
4603- o PS3 -w+ Adobe Level III PostScript
4604- o PSD rw- Adobe Photoshop bitmap
4605- o PTIF rw- Pyramid encoded TIFF
4606- o PWP r-- Seattle Film Works
4607- o RAF r-- Fuji Photo RAW
4608- o RAS rw+ SUN Rasterfile
4609- o RGB rw+ Raw red, green, and blue samples
4610- o RGBA rw+ Raw red, green, blue, and matte samples
4611- o RLA r-- Alias/Wavefront image
4612- o RLE r-- Utah Run length encoded image
4613- o SCT r-- Scitex HandShake
4614- o SFW r-- Seattle Film Works
4615- o SGI rw+ Irix RGB image
4616- o SHTML -w- Hypertext Markup Language and a
4617- client-side image map
4618- o STEGANO r-- Steganographic image
4619- o SUN rw+ SUN Rasterfile
4620- o SVG rw+ Scalable Vector Gaphics
4621- o TEXT rw+ Raw text
4622- o TGA rw+ Truevision Targa image
4623- o TIFF rw+ Tagged Image File Format
4624- o TILE r-- Tile image with a texture
4625- o TIM r-- PSX TIM
4626- o TOPOL r-- TOPOL X Image
4627- o TTF r-- TrueType font
4628- o TXT rw+ Raw text
4629- o UIL -w- X-Motif UIL table
4630- o UYVY rw- 16bit/pixel interleaved YUV
4631- o VDA rw+ Truevision Targa image
4632- o VICAR rw- VICAR rasterfile format
4633- o VID rw+ Visual Image Directory
4634- o VIFF rw+ Khoros Visualization image
4635- o VST rw+ Truevision Targa image
4636- o WBMP rw- Wireless Bitmap (level 0) image
4637- o WMF r-- Windows Metafile
4638- o WPG r-- Word Perfect Graphics
4639- o X rw- X Image
4640- o X3F r-- Foveon X3 (Sigma/Polaroid) RAW
4641- o XBM rw- X Windows system bitmap (black
4642- and white)
4643- o XC r-- Constant image uniform color
4644- o XCF r-- GIMP image
4645- o XMP rw- Adobe XML metadata
4646- o XPM rw- X Windows system pixmap (color)
4647- o XV rw+ Khoros Visualization image
4648- o XWD rw- X Windows system window dump (color)
4649- o YUV rw- CCIR 601 4:1:1 or 4:2:2 (8-bit only)
4650-
4651- Modes:
4652- r Read
4653- w Write
4654- + Multi-image
4655-
4656-
4657-\fISupport for some of these formats require additional programs or libraries.
4658-See README
4659-in the source package for where to find optional additional software\fP.
4660-
4661-Note, a format delineated with + means that if more than one
4662-image is specified, frames are combined into a single multi-image
4663-file. Use \fB+adjoin\fP if you want a single image produced for each
4664-frame.
4665-
4666-Your installation might not support all of the formats in the list.
4667-To get an accurate listing of the formats supported by your particular
4668-configuration, run "gm convert -list format".
4669-
4670-Raw images are expected to have one byte per pixel unless \fBgm\fP is
4671-compiled in 16-bit quantum mode or in 32-bit quantum mode. Here, the
4672-raw data is expected to be stored two or four bytes per pixel,
4673-respectively, in most-significant-byte-first order. For example, you
4674-can tell if \fBgm\fP was compiled in 16-bit mode by typing "gm
4675-version" without any options, and looking for "Q:16" in the first line
4676-of output.
4677-.SH FILES AND FORMATS
4678-
4679-By default, the image format is determined by its magic number, i.e., the
4680-first few bytes of the file. To specify
4681-a particular image format, precede the filename with an image format name
4682-and a colon (\fIi.e.\fP\fBps:image\fP) or specify the image type as the
4683-filename suffix (\fIi.e.\fP\fBimage.ps\fP).
4684-The magic number takes precedence over the filename suffix
4685-and the prefix takes precedence over the magic number and the suffix
4686-in input files.
4687-When a file is read, its magic number is stored in the "image->magick"
4688-string.
4689-In output files, the prefix takes precedence over the filename suffix,
4690-and the filename suffix takes precedence over the
4691-"image->magick" string.
4692-
4693-To read the "built-in" formats (GRANITE, H, LOGO,
4694-NETSCAPE, PLASMA, and ROSE) use a prefix (including the colon) without a
4695-filename or suffix. To read the XC format, follow the colon with a color
4696-specification. To read the CAPTION format, follow the colon with a text
4697-string or with a filename prefixed with the at symbol (\fB@\fP).
4698-
4699-
4700-When you specify \fBX\fP as your image type, the filename has special
4701-meaning. It specifies an X window by \fBid, name\fP, or
4702-\fBroot\fP. If
4703-no filename is specified, the window is selected by clicking the mouse
4704-in the desired window.
4705-
4706-Specify \fIinput_file\fP as \fB-\fP for standard input,
4707-\fIoutput_file\fP as \fB-\fP for standard output.
4708-If \fIinput_file\fP has the extension \fB.Z\fP or \fB.gz\fP, the
4709-file is uncompressed with \fBuncompress\fP or \fBgunzip\fP
4710-respectively.
4711-If \fIoutput_file\fP has the extension \fB.Z\fP or \fB.gz\fP,
4712-the file is compressed using with \fIcompress\fP or \fIgzip\fP respectively.
4713-
4714-Use an optional index enclosed in brackets after an input file name to
4715-specify a desired subimage of a multi-resolution image format like
4716-Photo CD (e.g. "img0001.pcd[4]") or a range for MPEG images
4717-(e.g. "video.mpg[50-75]"). A subimage specification can be
4718-disjoint (e.g. "image.tiff[2,7,4]"). For raw images, specify
4719-a subimage with a geometry (e.g. -size 640x512
4720-"image.rgb[320x256+50+50]"). Surround the image name with
4721-quotation marks to prevent your shell from interpreting the square
4722-brackets. Single images are written with the filename you
4723-specify. However, multi-part images (e.g., a multi-page PostScript
4724-document with \fB+adjoin\fP specified) may be written with the scene
4725-number included as part of the filename. In order to include the scene
4726-number in the filename, it is necessary to include a printf-style
4727-%d format specification in the file name and use the +adjoin
4728-option. For example,
4729-
4730- image%02d.miff
4731-
4732-
4733-writes files \fIimage00.miff, image01.miff,\fP etc. Only a single
4734-specification is allowed within an output filename. If more than one
4735-specification is present, it will be ignored. It is best to embed the
4736-scene number in the base part of the file name, not in the extension,
4737-because the extension will not be a recognizeable image type.
4738-
4739-When running a commandline utility,